Saturday, June 30, 2012


To my friends who are students of the Bible: this on-line version of the Bible in English will hopefully work fairly well even with only have a couple of bars and 3g, with no advertising and no slide-outs or pop-ups (something I find very irritating in most of the better Bible websites, which also have some features that don't always work well on an android device). The first phase is a mostly unedited copy, paste, and reformat existing public domain versions, most notably the Hebrew Names Version (HNV) of the World English Bible, a Modern English update of the American Standard Version. Also used are Young's literal translation and the Brenton translation of the Septuagint, and occasionally others.

In the next phase of this project, which I began somewhat slowly three and a half years ago, and in earnest last December (2015), I will begin to add notes, and edit the text to show the actual names of God as used in the original Hebrew and Greek texts, and update some of the translation where the English we use has changed from what it was even a few decades ago, or where the older translations were less than accurate.

Here are a few fundamental principles of translation and interpretation that I try to follow in this work:

1. Any translation or interpretation must be consistent with, or not inconsistent with, who and what God must be if he is truly God.

2. Any translation or interpretation must be consistent with, or not inconsistent with, other places of scripture.

3. Any translation or interpretation must be consistent with, or not inconsistent with, natural revelation.

4. Whenever there is an inconsistency, the presumption of fault rests with the translation, interpretation, or our understanding of the revelation in question, whether divine or natural.


In the Hebrew scriptures:
YHVH will be used for the Tetragrammaton, יהוה, the divine (personal) name of God.
I do not recommend attempting to pronounce this name: rather, when reading, substitute God, Lord, or Lord God, according to your personal preference.

Adonai, Elohim, and variants thereof, will be in transliterated Hebrew.

In the Greek scriptures, the usual English designations will probably be used.

Most proper names will be in transliterated Hebrew, rather than Latinized.
I plan to give the English meaning of the names in brackets when able and suitable.




The Intersection of Faith and Life. This site includes:
Bible Study Tools Online
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The apocrypha and pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament in English : with introductions and critical and explanatory notes to the several books (1913)
Charles, R. H. (Robert Henry)
Oxford - Clarendon Press
Vol. 1:
Vol. 2:

The New Testament in the original Greek
Westcott, Brooke Foss, D. D., and Fenton John Anthony Hort, D. D.
New York: Harpor & Brothers, Franklin Square, 1882

The Septuagint version of the Old Testament - Brenton, Lancelot Charles Lee, Sir, 1807-1862
Greek and English in parallel columns:

Hebrew-English lexicon, containing all the Hebrew and Chaldee words in the Old Testament scriptures, with their meanings in English:

Complutensian Polyglot Bible

Latin Lexicon - Niermeyer, Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon:

Massoretico-critical text of the Hebrew Bible (1894):

Introduction to the Masoretico-critical edition of the Hebrew Bible 01:

Introduction to the Masoretico-critical edition of the Hebrew Bible 02:

The Holy Bible in the Original Hebrew and Greek:

The Chronicles of Jerahmeel: Or, The Hebrew Bible Historiale. Being a Collection of Apocryphal and Pseudo-Epigraphical Books Dealing with the History of the World from the Creation to the Death of Judas Maccabeus:

Theology Bible Library Driver Brown Works 14 vols.1881-1920:

A handbook of Bible and church music .. (1898):

A handbook to Old Testament Hebrew : containing an elementary grammar of the language : with reading lessons, notes on many scripture passages and copious exercises (1921)

Strong's Concordance

Multilingual computing

Latin alphabet

Greek-English Interlinear LXX & New Testament
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Blue Letter Bible
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Bible Gateway


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Apocryphal writings 

Homer, others


The Fathers to Nicea

The Fathers after Nicea




Hymns, Carols, Psalms, and Songs, both Sacred and common, with information about authors and composers






Monday, June 11, 2012

Thomas Tallis

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thomas Tallis (c. 1505 – 23 November 1585) was an English composer. Tallis flourished as a church musician in 16th centuryTudor England. He occupies a primary place in anthologies of English church music, and is considered among the best of England's early composers. He is honoured for his original voice in English musicianship. No contemporary portrait of Tallis survives: the earliest, painted by Gerard van der Gucht, dates from 150 years after Tallis died, and there is no certainty that it is a likeness.

Early years

Little is known about Tallis's early life, but there seems to be agreement that he was born in the early 16th century, toward the close of the reign of Henry VII. Little is known about Tallis's childhood and his significance with music at that age. However, there are suggestions that he was a child of the chapel royal St. James's palace, the same singing establishment which he later went to as a man. His first known appointment to a musical position was as organist of Dover Priory in 1530–31, a Benedictine priory atDover (now Dover College) in 1532. His career took him to London, then (probably in the autumn of 1538) to the Augustinian abbey of Holy Cross at Waltham until the abbey was dissolved in 1540. Tallis acquired a volume at the dissolution of the monastery of Waltham Holy Cross and preserved it; one of the treatises in it was by Leonel Power, and the treatise itself prohibits consecutive unisons, fifths, and octaves

Tallis's next post was at Canterbury Cathedral. He was next sent to Court as Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in 1543 (which later became a Protestant establishment, where he composed and performed for Henry VIII, Edward VI (1547–1553), Queen Mary (1553–1558), and Queen Elizabeth I (1558 until Tallis died in 1585). Throughout his service to successive monarchs as organist and composer, Tallis avoided the religious controversies that raged around him, though, like William Byrd, he stayed an "unreformed Roman Catholic." Tallis was capable of switching the style of his compositions to suit the different monarchs' vastly different demands. Among other important composers of the time, including Christopher Tye and Robert White, Tallis stood out. Walker observes, "He had more versatility of style than either, and his general handling of his material was more consistently easy and certain." Tallis was also a teacher, not only of William Byrd, but also of Elway Bevin, an organist of Bristol Cathedral and gentleman of the Chapel Royal.

Tallis married around 1552; his wife, Joan, outlived him by four years. They apparently had no children. Late in his life he lived in Greenwich, possibly close to the royal palace: a local tradition holds that he lived on Stockwell Street.

Work with William Byrd

Queen Mary granted Tallis a lease on a manor in Kent that provided a comfortable annual income. In 1575, Queen Elizabeth granted to him and William Byrd a 21-year monopoly for polyphonic music and a patent to print and publish music, which was one of the first arrangements of that type in the country. Tallis's monopoly covered 'set songe or songes in parts', and he composed in English, Latin, French, Italian, or other tongues as long as they served for music in the Church or chamber. Tallis had exclusive rights to print any music, in any language. He and William Byrd were the only ones allowed to use the paper that was used in printing music. Tallis and Byrd used their monopoly to produce Cantiones quae ab argumento sacrae vocantur but the piece did not sell well and they appealed to Queen Elizabeth for her support. People were naturally wary of their new publications, and it certainly did not help their case that they were both avowed Roman Catholics. Not only that, they were strictly forbidden to sell any imported music. "We straightly by the same be brought out of any forren Realmes...any songe or songes made and printed in any foreen countrie." Also, Byrd and Tallis were not given "the rights to music type fonts, printing patents were not under their command, and they didn't actually own a printing press."

Tallis retained respect during a succession of opposing religious movements and deflected the violence that claimed Catholics and Protestants alike.

Thomas Tallis died peacefully in his house in Greenwich in November 1585. Most historians agree that he died on the twenty-third. He was buried in the chancel of the parish of St Alfege's Church in Greenwich.

Tallis is honoured together with William Byrd and John Merbecke with a feast day on the liturgical calendar of the Episcopal Church (USA) on 21 November.

Early works

The earliest surviving works by Tallis, Salve intemerata virgo, Ave rosa sine spinis and Ave Dei patris filia are devotional antiphons to the Virgin Mary, which were used outside the liturgy and were cultivated in England until the fall of Cardinal Wolsey.  Henry VIII's break with Roman Catholicism in 1534 and the rise of Thomas Cranmer noticeably influenced the style of music written. Texts became largely confined to the liturgy. The writing of Tallis and his contemporaries became less florid. Tallis's Mass for four voices is marked with tendencies toward a syllabic (which is a setting of text where each syllable is sung to one pitch) and chordal (consisting of or emphasising chords) style and a diminished use of melisma. Tallis provides a rhythmic variety and differentiation of moods depending on the meaning of his texts. Tallis helped found a relationship that was specific to the combining of words and music. He also wrote several excellent Lutheran chorales.

The reformed Anglican liturgy was inaugurated during the short reign of Edward VI (1547–53), and Tallis was one of the first church musicians to write anthems set to English words, although Latin continued to be used. The Catholic Mary Tudor set about undoing the religious reforms of the preceding decades. Following her accession in 1553, the Roman Rite was restored and compositional style reverted to the elaborate writing prevalent early in the century. Two of Tallis's major works, Gaude gloriosa Dei Mater and the Christmas Mass Puer natus est nobis are believed to be from this period. Only Puer natus est nobis can be accurately dated to 1554. As was the prevailing practice, these pieces were intended to exalt the image of the Queen as well as to praise the Mother of God.

Some of Tallis's works were compiled and printed in the Mulliner Book by Thomas Mulliner before Queen Elizabeth's reign, and may have been used by the Queen herself when she was younger. Elizabeth succeeded her half-sister in 1558, and the Act of Settlement in the following year abolished the Roman Liturgy and firmly established the Book of Common Prayer. Composers at court resumed writing English anthems, although the practice of setting Latin texts continued, growing more peripheral over time.

The mood of the country in the beginning of Elizabeth's reign leant toward the puritan, which discouraged the liturgical polyphony. Tallis wrote nine psalm chant tunes for four voices for Archbishop Parker's Psalter, published in 1567. One of the nine tunes, the "Third Mode Melody", inspired the composition of Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis by Ralph Vaughan Williams in 1910. Tallis's better-known works from the Elizabethan years include his settings of the Lamentations (of Jeremiah the Prophet) for the Holy Week services and the unique motet Spem in alium written for eight five-voice choirs. Tallis is mostly remembered for his role in composing office hymns and this motet, Spem in alium. Too often we forget to look at his compositions for other monarchs; several of Tallis's anthems written in Edward's reign such as his If ye love me, ought to be considered on the same level as his Elizabethan works. This is partially because we do not have all of his works from previous periods; eleven of eighteen Latin-texted pieces by Tallis from Elizabeth's reign were published, "which ensured their survival in a way not available to the earlier material."

Later works

Toward the end of his life, Tallis resisted the musical development seen in his younger contemporaries such as William Byrd, who embraced compositional complexity and adopted texts built by combining disparate biblical extracts. Tallis's experiments during this time period were considered rather unusual. Tallis was content to draw his texts from the Liturgy and wrote for the worship services in the Chapel Royal. Tallis composed during a difficult period during the conflict between Catholicism and Protestantism, and his music often displays characteristics of the turmoil.

Friday, June 8, 2012



CH 1      INDEX      NOTES      CH 3

The history of the twenty-two distinct acts of creation on the six days, 1-16. Institution of the Sabbath : its observance by the highest angels, with whom Israel is afterwards to be associated, 17-32. (Cf. Gen. i.-ii. 3.)

  1    And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying : Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works.

  2    For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before him — the angels of the presence, and the angels of sanctification, and the angels of the spirit of fire and the angels of the spirit of the winds, and the angels of the spirit of the clouds, and of darkness, and of snow and of hail and of hoar frost, and the angels of the voices and of the thunder and of the lightning, and the angels of the spirits of cold and of heat, and of winter and of spring and of autumn and of summer, and of all the spirits of his creatures which are in the heavens and on the earth, (He created) the abysses and the darkness, eventide (and night), and the light, dawn and day, which He hath prepared in the knowledge of his heart.

  3    And thereupon we saw His works, and praised Him, and lauded before Him on account of all His works ; for seven great works did He create on the first day.

  4    And on the second day He created the firmament in the midst of the waters, and the waters were divided on that day — half of them went up above and half of them went down below the firmament that was in the midst over the face of the whole earth. And this was the only work God created on the second day.

  5    And on the third day He commanded the waters to pass from off the face of the whole earth into one place, and the dry land to appear.

  6    And the waters did so as He commanded them, and they retired from off the face of the earth into one place outside of this firmament, and the dry land appeared.

  7    And on that day He created for them all the seas according to their separate gathering-places, and all the rivers, and the gatherings of the waters in the mountains and on all the earth, and all the lakes, and all the dew of the earth, and the seed which is sown, and all sprouting things, and fruit-bearing trees, and trees of the wood, and the garden of Eden, in Eden, and all plants after their kind.  These four great works God created on the third day.

  8    And on the fourth day He created the sun and the moon and the stars, and set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon all the earth, and to rule over the day and the night, and divide the light from the darkness.

  9    And God appointed the sun to be a great sign on the earth for days and for sabbaths and for months and for feasts and for years and for sabbaths of years and for jubilees and for all seasons of the years.

10    And it divideth the light from the darkness and for prosperity, that all things may prosper which shoot and grow on the earth.  These three kinds He made on the fourth day.

11    And on the fifth day He created great sea monsters in the depths of the waters, for these were the first things of flesh that were created by his hands, the fish and everything that moves in the waters, and everything that flies, the birds and all their kind.

12    And the sun rose above them to prosper them, and above everything that was on the earth, everything that shoots out of the earth, and all fruit-bearing trees, and all flesh. These three kinds He created on the fifth day.

13    And on the sixth day He created all the animals of the earth, and all cattle, and everything that moves on the earth.

14    And after all this He created man, a man and a woman created He them, and gave him dominion over all that is upon the earth, and in the seas, and over everything that flies, and over beasts and over cattle, and over everything that moves on the earth, and over the whole earth, and over all this He gave him dominion.

15    And these four kinds He created on the sixth day.  And there were altogether two and twenty kinds. 

16    And He finished all his work on the sixth day — all that is in the heavens and on the earth, and in the seas and in the abysses, and in the light and in the darkness, and in everything.

17    And He gave us a great sign, the Sabbath day, that we should work six days, but keep Sabbath on the seventh day from all work.

18    And all the angels of the presence, and all the angels of sanctification, these two great classes — He hath bidden us to keep the Sabbath with Him in heaven and on earth.

19    And He said unto us : ' Behold, I will separate unto Myself a people from among all the peoples, and these shall keep the Sabbath day, and I will sanctify them unto Myself as My people, and will bless them ; as I have sanctified the Sabbath day and do sanctify it unto Myself, even so will I bless them, and they shall be My people and I will be their God.

20    And I have chosen the seed of Jacob from amongst all that I have seen, and have written him down as My first-born son, and have sanctified him unto Myself for ever and ever ; and I will teach them the Sabbath day, that they may keep Sabbath thereon from all work.'

21    And thus He created therein a sign in accordance with which they should keep Sabbath with us on the seventh day, to eat and to drink, and to bless Him who has created all things as He has blessed and sanctified unto Himself a peculiar people above all peoples, and that they should keep Sabbath together with us.

22    And He caused His commands to ascend as a sweet savour acceptable before Him all the days.

23    There were two and twenty heads of mankind from Adam to Jacob, and two and twenty kinds of work were made until the seventh day ; this is blessed and holy ; and the former also is blessed and holy ; and this one serves with that one for sanctification and blessing.

24    And to this Jacob and his seed it was granted that they should always be the blessed and holy ones of the first testimony and law, even as He had sanctified and blessed the Sabbath day on the seventh day.

25    He created heaven and earth and everything that He created in six days, and God made the seventh day holy, for all His works ; therefore He commanded on its behalf that, whoever does any work thereon shall die, and that he who defiles it shall surely die. 

26    Wherefore do thou command the children of Israel to observe this day that they may keep it holy and not do thereon any work, and not to defile it, as it is holier than all other days.

27    And whoever profanes it shall surely die, and whoever does thereon any work shall surely die eternally, that the children of Israel may observe this day throughout their generations, and not be rooted out of the land ; for it is a holy day and a blessed day.

28    And every one who observes it and keeps Sabbath thereon from all his work, will be holy and blessed throughout all days like unto us.

29    Declare and say to the children of Israel the law of this day both that they should keep Sabbath thereon, and that they should not forsake it in the error of their hearts ; (and) that it is not lawful to do any work thereon which is unseemly, to do thereon their own pleasure, and that they should not prepare thereon anything to be eaten or drunk, fand (that it is not lawful) to draw water, or bring in or take out thereon through their gates any burden,t  which they had not prepared for themselves on the sixth day in their dwellings.

30    And they shall not bring in nor take out from house to house on that day ; for that day is more holy and blessed than any jubilee day of the jubilees ; on this we kept Sabbath in the heavens before it was made known to any flesh to keep Sabbath thereon on the earth.

31    And the Creator of all things blessed it, but he did not sanctify all peoples and nations to keep Sabbath thereon, but Israel alone : them alone he permitted to eat and drink and to keep Sabbath thereon on the earth. 

32    And the Creator of all things blessed this day which He had created for blessing and holiness and glory above all days.

33    This law and testimony was given to the children of Israel as a law for ever unto their 



INTRO      INDEX      NOTES      CH 2      

Moses receives the tables of the law and instruction on past and future history which he is to inscribe  in a book, 1-4. Apostasy of Israel, 5-9. Captivity of Israel and Judah, 10-13. Return of Judah and rebuilding of the temple, 15-18. Moses prayer for Israel, 19-21. Gods promise to redeem and dwell with them, 22-5, 28. Moses bidden to write down the future history of the world, 26. And an angel to write down the law, 27. This angel takes the heavenly chronological tablets to dictate therefrom to Moses, 29.

        THIS is the history of the division of the days of the law and of the testimony, of the events of the years, of their (year) weeks, of their Jubilees throughout all the years of the world, as the Lord spake to Moses on Mount Sinai when he went up to receive the tables of the law and of the commandment, according to the voice of God as he said unto him, ' Go up to the top of the Mount.'

  1    And it came to pass in the first year of the exodus of the children of Israel out of Egypt, in the third month, on the sixteenth day of the month, that God spake to Moses, saying: 'Come up to Me on the Mount, and I will give thee two tables of stone of the law and of the commandment, which I have written, that thou mayst teach them.'

  2    And Moses went up into the mount of God, and the glory of the Lord abode on Mount Sinai, and a cloud overshadowed it six days.

  3    And He called to Moses on the seventh day out of the midst of the cloud, and the appearance of the glory of the Lord was like a flaming fire on the top of the mount.

  4    And Moses was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier and the later history of the division of all the days of the law and of the testimony.

  5    And He said : ' Incline thine heart to every word which I shall speak to thee on this mount, and write them in a book in order that their generations may see how I have not forsaken them for all the evil which they have wrought in transgressing the covenant which I establish between Me and thee for their generations this day on Mount Sinai.

  6    And thus it will come to pass when all these things come upon them, that they will recognize that I am more righteous than they in all their judgments and in all their actions, and they will recognize that I have been truly with them.

  7    And do thou write for thyself all these words which I declare unto thee this day, for I know their rebellion and their stiff neck, before I bring them into the land of which I sware to their fathers, to Abraham and to Isaac and to Jacob, saying :

  8    'Unto your seed will I give a land flowing with milk and honey. And they will eat and be satisfied, and they will turn to strange gods, to (gods) which cannot deliver them from aught of their tribulation: and this witness shall be heard for a witness against them.

  9    For they will forget all My commandments, (even) all that I command them, and they will walk after the Gentiles, and after their uncleanness, and after their shame, and will serve their gods, and these will prove unto them an offence and a tribulation and an affliction and a snare.

10    And many will perish and they will be taken captive, and will fall into the hands of the enemy, because they have forsaken My ordinances and My commandments, and the festivals of My covenant, and My Sabbaths, and My holy place which I have hallowed for Myself in their midst, and My tabernacle, and My sanctuary, which I have hallowed for Myself in the midst of the land, that I should set my name upon it, and that it should dwell (there).

11    And they will make to themselves high places and groves and graven images, and they will worship, each his own (graven image), so as to go astray, and they will sacrifice their children to demons, and to all the works of the error of their hearts.

12    And I will send witnesses unto them, that I may witness against them, but they will not hear, and will slay the witnesses also, and they will persecute those who seek the law, and they will abrogate and change everything so as to work evil before My eyes.

13    And I will hide My face from them, and I will deliver them into the hand of the Gentiles for captivity, and for a prey, and for devouring, and I will remove them from the midst of the land, and I will scatter them among the Gentiles.

14    And they will forget all My law and all My commandments and all My judgments, and will go astray as to new moons, and Sabbaths, and festivals, and jubilees, and ordinances.

15    And after this they will turn to Me from among the Gentiles with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their strength, and I will gather them from amongst all the Gentiles, and they will seek me, so that I shall be found of them, when they seek me with all their heart and with all their soul.

16    And I will disclose to them abounding peace with righteousness, and I will remove them the plant of uprightness, with all My heart and with all My soul, and they shall be for a blessing and not for a curse, and they shall be the head and not the tail.

17    And I will build My sanctuary in their midst, and I will dwell with them, and I will be their God and they shall be My people in truth and righteousness.

18    And I will not forsake them nor fail them; for I am the Lord their God.'

19    And Moses fell on his face and prayed and said, 'O Lord my God, do not forsake Thy people and Thy inheritance, so that they should wander in the error of their hearts, and do not deliver them into the hands of their enemies, the Gentiles, lest they should rule over them and cause them to sin against Thee.

20    Let thy mercy, O Lord, be lifted up upon Thy people, and create in them an upright spirit, and let not the spirit of Beliar rule over them to accuse them before Thee, and to ensnare them from all the paths of righteousness, so that they may perish from before Thy face.

21    But they are Thy people and Thy inheritance, which thou hast delivered with thy great power from the hands of the Egyptians : create in them a clean heart and a holy spirit, and let them not be ensnared in their sins from henceforth until eternity.'

22    And the Lord said unto Moses : ' I know their contrariness and their thoughts and their stiffneckedness, and they will not be obedient till they confess their own sin and the sin of their fathers.

23    And after this they will turn to Me in all uprightness and with all (their) heart and with all (their) soul, and I will circumcise the foreskin of their heart and the foreskin of the heart of their seed, and I will create in them a holy spirit, and I will cleanse them so that they shall not turn away from Me from that day unto eternity.

24    And their souls will cleave to Me and to all My commandments, and they will fulfil My commandments, and I will be their Father and they shall be My children.

25    And they all shall be called children of the living God, and every angel and every spirit shall know, yea, they shall know that these are My children, and that I am their Father in uprightness and righteousness, and that I love them.

26    And do thou write down for thyself all these words which I declare unto thee on this mountain, the first and the last, which shall come to pass in all the divisions of the days in the law and in the testimony and in the weeks and the jubilees unto eternity, until I descend and dwell with them throughout eternity.'

27    And He said to the angel of the presence : ' Write for Moses from the beginning of creation till My sanctuary has been built among them for all eternity.

28    And the Lord will appear to the eyes of all, and all shall know that I am the God of Israel and the Father of all the children of Jacob, and King on Mount Zion for all eternity. And Zion and Jerusalem shall be holy.'

29    And the angel of the presence who went before the camp of Israel took the tables of the divisions of the years — from the time of the creation — of the law and of the testimony of the weeks of the jubilees, according to the individual years, according to all the number of the jubilees [according to the individual years], from the day of the [new] creation when the heavens and the earth shall be renewed and all their creation according to the powers of the heaven, and according to all the creation of the earth, until the sanctuary of the Lord shall be made in Jerusalem on Mount Zion, and all the luminaries be renewed for healing and for peace and for blessing for all the elect of Israel, and that thus it may be from that day and unto all the days of the earth.


Thursday, June 7, 2012


This study by request of a friend

The suffix, "-ite," is an English language form meaning "person," as in a member or citizen of the tribe, clan, city, state, or nation name to which the suffix is attached.  Other similar suffixes include "-ish," "-an," "-ian," and "-ino."  Which ending is used is somewhat arbitrary, and dependent upon the preceding syllable.

In the context of this study, the "-ites" generally refers in particular to the descendants of Canaan, as first listed in Genesis 10:15-18, and more particularly to those residents of the land of Caanan, the "promised land," as first listed in Exodus 3:8.

Genesis 10:15-18 (polyglot)

וּכְנַעַן יָלַד אֶת־צִידֹן בְּכֹרֹו וְאֶת־חֵת׃
וְאֶת־הַיְבוּסִי וְאֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְאֵת הַגִּרְגָּשִׁי׃
וְאֶת־הַחִוִּי וְאֶת־הַעַרְקִי וְאֶת־הַסִּינִי׃
וְאֶת־הָאַרְוָדִי וְאֶת־הַצְּמָרִי וְאֶת־הַחֲמָתִי
וְאַחַר נָפֹצוּ מִשְׁפְּחֹות הַכְּנַעֲנִי׃

u·kǝ·na·'an, ya·lad 'et- si·don bǝ·ko·row wǝ·'et het.
wǝ·'et hay·bu·si wǝ·'et ha·'e·mo·ri wǝ·'et hag·gir·ga·si.
wǝ·'et ha·hiw·wi wǝ·'et ha·'ar·qi wǝ·'et has·si·ni.
wǝ·'et ha·'ar·wa·di wǝ·'et has·sǝ·ma·ri wǝ·'et ha·ma·ti
wǝ·'a·har na·po·su, mis·pǝ·ho·wt hak·kǝ·na·'a·ni.

Interliner Translation:
Canaan became - of Sidon his firstborn - and Heth
- and the Jebusite - and the Amorite - and the Girgashite
- and the Hivite - and the Arkite - and the Sinite
- and the Arvadite - and the Zemarite - and the Hamathite
and afterward were spread the families of the Canaanite.

 Septuagint (Greek):
χανααν δε εγεννησεν τον σιδωνα πρωτοτοκον και τον χετταιον
και τον ιεβουσαιον και τον αμορραιον και τον γεργεσαιον
και τον ευαιον και τον αρουκαιον και τον ασενναιον
και τον αραδιον και τον σαμαραιον και τον αμαθι και μετα τουτο διεσπαρησαν αι φυλαι των χαναναιων

chanaan de egennēsen ton sidōna prōtotokon kai ton chettaion
kai ton iebousaion kai ton amorraion kai ton gergesaion
kai ton euaion kai ton aroukaion kai ton asennaion
kai ton aradion kai ton samaraion kai ton amathi kai meta touto diesparēsan ai phulai tōn chananaiōn

Biblia Sacra Vulgata (Latin):
Chanaan autem genuit Sidonem primogenitum suum Ettheum
et Iebuseum et Amorreum Gergeseum
Eveum et Araceum Sineum
et Aradium Samariten et Amatheum et post haec disseminati sunt populi Chananeorum

German: Luther (1545):
Kanaan aber zeugete Zidon, seinen ersten Sohn, und Heth,
Jebusi, Emori, Girgasi,
Les Héviens, les Arkiens, les Siniens;
Arvadi, Zemari und Hamathi. Daher sind ausgebreitet die Geschlechter der Kanaaniter.

King James Version:
And Canaan begat Sidon his first born, and Heth,
And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgasite
And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite
And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the families of the Canaanites spread abroad.

Douay-Rheims Version:
And Chanaan begot Sidon, his firstborn, the Hethite
And the Jebusite, and the Amorrhite, and the Gergesite
and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite,
And the Aradian, the Samarite, and the Hamathite: and afterwards the families of the Chanaanites were spread abroad.

Hebrew Names Version:
Kana`an became the father of Tzidon (his firstborn), Het,
the Yevusi, the Amori, the Girgashi,
the Hivvi, the `Arki, the Sini,
the Arvadi, the Tzemari, and the Hamati. Afterward the families of the Kana`anim were spread abroad.

Young's Literal Translation:
And Canaan hath begotten Sidon his first-born, and Heth
and the Jebusite, and the Amorite, and the Girgashite,
and the Hivite, and the Arkite, and the Sinite
and the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, and the Hamathite; and afterwards have the families of the Canaanite
been scattered.

Spanish: Modern (1909):
Canaán engendró a Sidón su primogénito y a Het,
Y al Jebuseo, y al Amorrheo, y al Gergeseo,
Y al Heveo, y al Araceo, y al Sineo,
Y al Aradio, y al Samareo, y al Amatheo: y después se derramaron las familias de los Cananeos.


The following "-ites" are listed in the above passage. Six of the seven repeated later are shown in bold.

Heth=Het (father of the Hittites)
Jebusite = Yevusi
Amorite = Amori
Girgasite = Girgashi
Hivite = Hivvi
Arkite = 'Arki
Sinite = Sini
Arvadite = Arvadi
Zemarite = Tzemari
Hamathite = Hamati
Canaanite = Kana'ani


Exodus 3:8 (polyglot)

וָאֵרֵד לְהַצִּילֹו מִיַּד מִצְרַיִם וּלְהַעֲלֹתֹו מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא אֶל־אֶרֶץ טֹובָה וּרְחָבָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ אֶל־מְקֹום הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃

Transliterated:wa·e·red lǝ·has·si·low mi·yad mis·ra·ym, u·lǝ·ha·'a·lo·tow min- ha·'a·res ha·hi·w 'el- 'e·res to·w·bah u·rǝ·ha·bah, 'el- 'e·res za·bat ha·lab u·de·bas; 'el- mǝ·qo·wm hak·kǝ·na·'a·ni wǝ·ha·hit·tu wǝ·ha·'e·mo·ri wǝ·hap·pǝ·riz·zi wǝ·ha·hiw·wi wǝ·hay·bu·si.

Interliner Translation:
have come to deliver the power Egyptian bring that land he about land to a good and spacious to a land flowing milk and honey to the place of the Canaanite and the Hittite and the Amorite and the Perizzite and the Hivite and the Jebusite.

Septuagint (Greek):
και κατεβην εξελεσθαι αυτους εκ χειρος αιγυπτιων και εξαγαγειν αυτους εκ της γης εκεινης και εισαγαγειν αυτους εις γην αγαθην και πολλην εις γην ρεουσαν γαλα και μελι εις τον τοπον των χαναναιων και χετταιων και αμορραιων και φερεζαιων και γεργεσαιων και ευαιων και ιεβουσαιων

kai katebēn eξelesthai autous ek cheiros aiguptiōn kai eξagagein autous ek tēs gēs ekeinēs kai eisagagein autous eis gēn agathēn kai pongēn eis gēn reousan gala kai meli eis ton topon tōn chananaiōn kai chettaiōn kai amorraiōn kai pherezaiōn kai gergesaiōn kai euaiōn kai iebousaiōn

Biblia Sacra Vulgata (Latin):
et sciens dolorem eius descendi ut liberarem eum de manibus Aegyptiorum et educerem de terra illa in terram bonam et spatiosam in terram quae fluit lacte et melle ad loca Chananei et Hetthei et Amorrei Ferezei et Evei et Iebusei

German: Luther (1545):
Und bin herniedergefahren, daß ich sie errette von der Ägypter Hand und sie ausführe aus diesem Lande in ein gut und weit Land, in ein Land, darinnen Milch und Honig fleußt, nämlich an den Ort der Kanaaniter, Hethiter, Amoriter, Pheresiter, Heviter und Jebusiter.

King James Version:
And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.

Douay-Rheims Version:
And knowing their sorrow, I am come down to deliver them out of the hands of the Egyptians, and to bring them out of that land into a good and spacious land, into a land that floweth with milk and honey, to the places of the Chanaanite, and Hethite, and Amorrhite, and Pherezite, and Hevite, and Jebusite.

Hebrew Names Version:
I have come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Mitzrim, and to bring them up out of that land to a good and large land, to a land flowing with milk and honey; to the place of the Kana`ani, the Hittite, the Amori, the Perizzi, the Hivvi, and the Yevusi.

Young's Literal Translation:
and I go down to deliver it out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to cause it to go up out of the land, unto a land good and broad, unto a land flowing with milk and honey -- unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.

Spanish: Modern (1909):
Y he descendido para librarlos de mano de los Egipcios, y sacarlos de aquella tierra á una tierra buena y ancha, á tierra que fluye leche y miel, á los lugares del Cananeo, del Hetheo, del Amorrheo, del Pherezeo, del Heveo, y del Jebuseo.


The seven tribes of Caanan with which we are concerned are:




Girgashites, or Girgasites, were the descendants of Canaan according to Genesis 10:16 and 1 Chronicles 1:14 and were inhabitants of the land of Canaan according to Genesis 15:21, Deuteronomy 7:1, Joshua 3:10, 24:11, and Nehemiah 9:8. At times they are not listed along with the other Canaanite tribes inhabiting the Holy Land; according to some, such as Rashi,[1] this is because they left the Land of Israel before the Israelites returned from Egypt.



Perizzite;  also:  Perizzites - villagers; dwellers in the open country, the Girgashite Canaanite nation inhabiting the fertile regions south and south-west of Carmel. "They were the graziers, farmers, and peasants of the time." They were to be driven out of the land by the descendants of Abraham (Gen. 15:20; Ex. 3:8, 3:17; 23:23; 33:2; 34:11; Jg. 1:4-1:5). They are afterwards named among the conquered tribes (Josh. 24:11). Still lingering in the land, however, they were reduced to servitude by Solomon (1 Kings 9:20).


Deuteronomy 7:1 (polyglot)

כִּי יְבִיאֲךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר־אַתָּה בָא־ שָׁמָּה לְרִשְׁתָּהּ וְנָשַׁל גֹּויִם־רַבִּים מִפָּנֶיךָ הַחִתִּי וְהַגִּרְגָּשִׁי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִו וְהַיְבוּסִי שִׁבְעָה גֹויִם רַבִּים וַעֲצוּמִים מִמֶּךָּ׃

ki yǝ·'a·bi·yǝ  יְהוָה  'e·lo·he·ka 'el- ha·'a·res 'a·ser- 'at·tah ba- sam·mah lǝ·ris·tah; wǝ·na·sal go·w·yim rab·bim mip·pa·ne·ka ha·hit·ti wǝ·hag·gir·ga·si wǝ·ha·'e·mo·ri wǝ·hak·kǝ·na·'a·ni wǝ·hap·pǝ·riz·zi wǝ·ha·hiw·wi wǝ·hay·bu·si sib·ah go·w·yim, rab·bim wa·'a·su·mim mim·me·ka.

Interliner Translation:When brings the LORD your God into the land after you are entering in it to possess and clears Gentile many before the Hittites and the Girgashites and the Amorites and the Canaanites and the Perizzites and the Hivites and the Jebusites seven nations greater and stronger than

Septuagint (Greek):
εαν δε εισαγαγη σε κυριος ο θεος σου εις την γην εις ην εισπορευη εκει κληρονομησαι και εξαρει εθνη μεγαλα απο προσωπου σου τον χετταιον και γεργεσαιον και αμορραιον και χαναναιον και φερεζαιον και ευαιον και ιεβουσαιον επτα εθνη πολλα και ισχυροτερα υμων

ean de eisagagē se kurios o theos sou eis tēn gēn eis ēn eisporeuē ekei klēronomēsai kai eξarei ethnē megala apo prosōpou sou ton chettaion kai gergesaion kai amorraion kai chananaion kai pherezaion kai euaion kai iebousaion epta ethnē ponga kai ischurotera umōn
Biblia Sacra Vulgata (Latin):
cum introduxerit te Dominus Deus tuus in terram quam possessurus ingredieris et deleverit gentes multas coram te Hettheum et Gergeseum et Amorreum Chananeum et Ferezeum et Eveum et Iebuseum septem gentes multo maioris numeri quam tu es et robustiores te

German: Luther (1545):
Wenn dich der HERR, dein Gott, ins Land bringet, darein du kommen wirst, dasselbe einzunehmen, und ausrottet viele Völker vor dir her: die Hethiter, Girgositer, Amoriter, Kanaaniter, Pheresiter, Heviter und Jebusiter, sieben Völker, die größer und stärker sind denn du;

King James Version:
When the LORD thy God shall bring thee into the land whither thou goest to possess it, and hath cast out many nations before thee, the Hittites, and the Girgashites, and the Amorites, and the Canaanites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites, seven nations greater and mightier than thou;

Douay-Rheims Version:
When the Lord thy God shall have brought thee into the land, which thou art going in to possess, and shall have destroyed many nations before thee, the Hethite, and the Gergezite, and the Amorrhite, and the Chanaanite, and the Pherezite, and the Hevite, and the Jebusite, seven nations much more numerous than thou art, and stronger than thou:

Hebrew Names Version:
When the LORD your God shall bring you into the land where you go to possess it, and shall cast out many nations before you, the Hittite, and the Girgashi, and the Amori, and the Kana`ani, and the Perizzi, and the Hivvi, and the Yevusi, seven nations greater and mightier than you;

Young's Literal Translation:
'When Jehovah thy God doth bring thee in unto the land whither thou art going in to possess it, and He hath cast out many nations from thy presence, the Hittite, and the Girgashite, and the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite, seven nations more numerous and mighty than thou,

Spanish: Modern (1909):
Cuando Jehová tu Dios te hubiere introducido en la tierra en la cual tú has de entrar para poseerla, y hubiere echado de delante de ti muchas gentes, al Hetheo, al Gergeseo, y al Amorrheo, y al Cananeo, y al Pherezeo, y al Heveo, y al Jebuseo, siete nacio


The reason the seven nations of Canaan were to be cast out is made clear in Leviticus 18 and 20.

They were among the most vile people on earth at the time. Incest, bestiality, prostitution, including temple prostitution, and other sexual perversions were rampant. Perhaps the worst was infant sacrifice, passing their children through the fire to Molech. They were like a cancer on the earth, and like cancer, it is necessary to remove all of it, or it will come back. The Israelites did not do as they were commanded, and the whole world has suffered the consequence ever since.



The Hittites (also Hethites) and children of Heth are a people or peoples mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. They are listed in Book of Genesis as second of the twelve Canaanite nations, descended from one Heth (חת ḤT in the consonant-only Hebrew script). Under the names בני-חת (BNY-ḤT "children of Heth") or חתי (ḤTY "native of Heth") they are mentioned several times as living in or near Canaan since the time of Abraham (estimated to be between 2000 BC and 1500 BC) to the time of Ezra after the return from the Babylonian exile (around 450 BC). Heth (Hebrew: חֵת, Modern H̱et Tiberian Ḥēṯ) is said in Genesis to be a son of Canaan, son of Ham, son of Noah.

The period of the Exodus and the conquest of Canaan is conjectured to start sometime after 1800 BC and end sometime before 1000 BC. In this period (in which can be included the promise made to Abraham, centuries earlier, and its recall by Nehemiah half a millennium later), the Hittites are mentioned about a dozen times as part of an almost fixed formula that lists the "seven nations greater and mightier than [the Hebrews]" whose lands will be eventually conquered. Five other "major nations" are mentioned in almost all instances of the formula: Canaanites, Amorites, Hivites, Jebusites, and Perizzites. The Girgashites are mentioned only five times. Abraham's covenant in Genesis 15:18 omits the Hivites but includes the Kadmonites, Kenites, Kenizzites, and Rephaim.

Among the five references to the Hittites that cannot be classified as a variant of that formula, two (Numbers 13:29 and Joshua 11:3) declare that the Hittites "dwell in the mountains", together with the Jebusites, Amorites, and Perizzites, whereas the Canaanites live "on the east and on the west", on the coast of Jordan, and the Amalekites live "in the south". In Joshua 1:4 the land of the Hittites is said to extend "from the wilderness and this Lebanon", from "the Euphrates unto the great sea". In Judges 1:18, the Bethel traitor who led the Hebrew into the city is said to have gone to live among the Hittites where he built a city called Luz. Finally in Judges 3:5 it is said that the Hebrew lived and intermarried with the Hittites as well as with the other five "major nations".

See also the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia: HITTITES


See also the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia: JEBUSITES


The term Amorites is used in the Bible to refer to certain highland mountaineers who inhabited the land of Canaan, described in Genesis 10:16 as descendants of Canaan, son of Ham. They are described as a powerful people of great stature "like the height of the cedars," who had occupied the land east and west of the Jordan; their king, Og, being described as the last "of the remnant of the Rephaim" (Deut. 3:11). The terms Amorite and Canaanite seem to be used more or less interchangeably, Canaan being more general and Amorite a specific component among the Canaanites who inhabited the land.

The Biblical Amorites seem to have originally occupied the region stretching from the heights west of the Dead Sea (Gen. 14:7) to Hebron (13:8; Deut. 3:8; 4:46-48), embracing "all Gilead and all Bashan" (Deut. 3:10), with the Jordan valley on the east of the river (4:49), the land of the "two kings of the Amorites," Sihon and Og (Deut. 31:4; Josh. 2:10; 9:10). Both Sihon and Og were independent kings. These Amorites seem to have been linked to the Jerusalem region, and the Jebusites may have been a subgroup of them. The southern slopes of the mountains of Judea are called the "mount of the Amorites" (Deut. 1:7, 19, 20).

Five kings of the Amorites were first defeated with great slaughter by Joshua (10:10). Then more Amorite kings were defeated at the waters of Merom by Joshua (Josh. 11:8). It is mentioned that in the days of Samuel, there was peace between them and the Israelites (1 Sam. 7:14). The Gibeonites were said to be their descendants, being an offshoot of the Amorites that made a covenant with the Hebrews; when Saul would break that vow and kill some of the Gibeonites, God sent a famine to Israel.

See also the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia:  AMORITES

Girgasites   The Girgashites are mentioned only five times in the Bible.

See also the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia:  GIRGASHITES


See also the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia: HIVITES

Canaanites   (root meaning: "to bow down.")
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia:  CANAANITES

Perizzites - villagers; dwellers in the open country, the Girgashite Canaanite nation inhabiting the fertile regions south and south-west of Carmel. "They were the graziers, farmers, and peasants of the time." They were to be driven out of the land by the descendants of Abraham (Gen. 15:20; Ex. 3:8, 3:17; 23:23; 33:2; 34:11; Jg. 1:4-1:5). They are afterwards named among the conquered tribes (Josh. 24:11). Still lingering in the land, however, they were reduced to servitude by Solomon (1 Kings 9:20).

from the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia:  PERIZZITES


Canaanite religion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Saturday, June 2, 2012


Bees, Bumblebees, and Hornets in the Bible


Bees, Bumblebees, and Hornets in the Bible

An evangelist friend recently asked for some information on bees in the Bible because of a dream he had about bumblebees, and also a recent experience with "killer bees."  He also asked for information about the Canaanites, which will be posted seperately.  Because of that study, I am also including links and references to hornets, a related species.  [References are in the King James Version, but will soon be linked to a polygolot bible.]  I am also including references to "honey," which is produced by bees.

The following are all of the order Hymenoptera:

Bumblebee: family Apidae, genus Bombus

Western or European honey bee:  family Apidae, genus Apis
      The African honey bee is a subspecies; the Africanized honey bee or "killer bee" is a hybrid
      of the African and European subspecies.

Hornet: family Vespidae, subfamily Vespinae, genus Vespa
      The best known species is the European hornet.  See also the Asian giant hornet.

Bible references for “bee," “bees”

Deuteronomy 1:44
And the Amorites, which dwelt in that mountain, came out against you, and chased you, as bees do , and destroyed you in Seir, even unto Hormah.

Isaiah 7:18
And it shall come to pass in that day, that the LORD shall hiss for the fly that is in the uttermost part of the rivers of Egypt, and for the bee that is in the land of Assyria.

Ben Sira 11:3
The bee is little among such as fly; but her fruit is the chief of sweet things.

Judges 14:8
And after a time he returned to take her, and he turned aside to see the carcase of the lion: and, behold, there was a swarm of bees and honey in the carcase of the lion.

Psalm 118:12
They compassed me about like bees; they are quenched as the fire of thorns: for in the name of the LORD I will destroy them.

Bible references for “hornet”

Exodus 23:29
And I will send hornets before thee, which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite, from before thee.

Deuteronomy 7:20
Moreover the LORD thy God will send the hornet among them, until they that are left , and hide themselves from thee, be destroyed.

Joshua 24:12
And I sent the hornet before you, which drave them out from before you, even the two kings of the Amorites; but not with thy sword, nor with thy bow.
Bible references for “honey”

Exodus 3:8
And I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanites, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the Perizzites, and the Hivites, and the Jebusites.

Exodus 16:31
And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna: and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey.

Leviticus 2:11
No meat offering, which ye shall bring unto the LORD, shall be made with leaven: for ye shall burn no leaven, nor any honey, in any offering of the LORD made by fire.

Numbers 16:13-14
Is it a small thing that thou hast brought us up out of a land that floweth with milk and honey, to kill us in the wilderness, except thou make thyself altogether a prince over us?
Moreover thou hast not brought us into a land that floweth with milk and honey, or given us inheritance of fields and vineyards: wilt thou put out the eyes of these men? we will not come up.

Deuteronomy 6:3
Hear therefore, O Israel, and observe to do it; that it may be well with thee, and that ye may increase mightily, as the LORD God of thy fathers hath promised thee, in the land that floweth with milk and honey.

Deuteronomy 31:20
For when I shall have brought them into the land which I sware unto their fathers, that floweth with milk and honey; and they shall have eaten and filled themselves, and waxen fat ; then will they turn unto other gods, and serve them, and provoke me, and break my covenant.

Joshua 5:6
For the children of Israel walked forty years in the wilderness, till all the people that were men of war, which came out of Egypt, were consumed , because they obeyed not the voice of the LORD: unto whom the LORD sware that he would not shew them the land, which the LORD sware unto their fathers that he would give us, a land that floweth with milk and honey.

Judges 14:8-9
And after a time he returned to take her, and he turned aside to see the carcase of the lion: and, behold, there was a swarm of bees and honey in the carcase of the lion.
And he took thereof in his hands, and went on eating , and came to his father and mother, and he gave them,
and they did eat : but he told not them that he had taken the honey out of the carcase of the lion.

2Chronicles 31:5
And as soon as the commandment came abroad , the children of Israel brought in abundance the firstfruits of corn, wine, and oil, and honey, and of all the increase of the field; and the tithe of all things brought they in abundantly.

Psalm 19:10
More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.

Psalm 81:16
He should have fed them also with the finest of the wheat: and with honey out of the rock should I have satisfied thee.

Proverbs 24:13
My son, eat thou honey, because it is good; and the honeycomb, which is sweet to thy taste:

Proverbs 25:16
Hast thou found honey? eat so much as is sufficient for thee, lest thou be filled therewith, and vomit it.

Proverbs 25:27
It is not good to eat much honey: so for men to search their own glory is not glory.

Isaiah 7:15, 22
Butter and honey shall he eat , that he may know to refuse the evil, and choose the good.
And it shall come to pass, for the abundance of milk that they shall give he shall eat butter: for butter and honey shall every one eat that is left in the land.

Jeremiah 41:8
But ten men were found among them that said unto Ishmael, Slay us not: for we have treasures in the field, of wheat, and of barley, and of oil, and of honey. So he forbare , and slew them not among their brethren.

Ezekiel 16:13
Thus wast thou decked with gold and silver; and thy raiment was of fine linen , and silk, and broidered work; thou didst eat fine flour, and honey, and oil: and thou wast exceeding beautiful , and thou didst prosper into a kingdom.

Ezekiel 17:17
Judah, and the land of Israel, they were thy merchants : they traded in thy market wheat of Minnith, and Pannag, and honey, and oil, and balm.

Matthew 3:4
And the same John had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins; and his meat was locusts and wild honey.

Revelation 10:9-10
And I went unto the angel, and said unto him, Give me the little book. And he said unto me, Take it, and eat it up ; and it shall make thy belly bitter , but it shall be in thy mouth sweet as honey.
And I took the little book out of the angel's hand, and ate it up ; and it was in my mouth sweet as honey: and as soon as I had eaten it, my belly was bitter .