Wednesday, October 17, 2012

Faith in the news, May 1, 2012

By Mark Darroch

      A New Year's resolution is your heart's cry for transformation.  Transformation is hard, or is it?  About a year ago, I began transforming my life and God showed me that transformation can be a lot easier than I imagined.
      Last year, after a series of routine blood tests for work (I worked in the medical field), I found out I had severe Anemia of unknown origin.  I had been feeling tired and sluggish for months (maybe years) but blamed myself for being too lazy or not exercising enough.  The day after I got the results, my doctor called and said, "If you don't get into the hospital for some iron infusions, you could die."  Immediately I complied, but as I started the infusions I felt there was a spiritual lesson here as well.
      Taking very little time for myself, i had been working hard since I was 17.  More importantly, I had been ignoring the call of God on my life for years.  I couldn't run any longer.  It was time to make a radical change in my life.  I quit my job, sold my house and spent the rest of the year asking and answering the question, "What is my purpose in life and how do I find it?"
      The only thing I really wanted to do was teach a Bible class at Spokane Dream Center's Bible School.  Little did I know that teaching the class would change my life.  The Lord started speaking to me of my call to teach, write and speak about Him and His ways.
      My class was based on Proverbs 13:12, "Hope deferred makes the heart sick, but desire fulfilled is like a tree of life."  I knew all about a sick heart.  What I didn't know much about was desire fulfilled.  The Bible says that when our desires are fulfilled, it tastes like eating from the Tree of Life.  I wanted that.  I began to read and study the scriptures concerning every aspect of desire fulfillment and the tree of Life.
      Desire fulfillment is all about transformation.  I was being transformed by being obedient to do the only thing I felt led to do, teach that Bible class, and in the process, God was faithful to transform my life.
      As the months passed, i wrote down what I was learning and teaching about transformation.  The Lord prompted me to write a book and by the end of the year, I completed Faith on Purpose: Create The Faith You Need To Fulfill Your Higher Purpose, and started teaching Faith on Purpose seminars.  I wanted to teach others about desire fulfillment.
      In the scriptures, I found that nothing changes in our life until we do.  No one in scripture was handed anything they couldn't handle, and before they were blessed, they were tested.  But the purpose of the test was to transform them, not punish them.  The Bible speaks of being transformed "by the renewing of your mind."  While many people think trials are the main thing God uses to transform us, I don't see that in scripture.  What I see is that it's our response to trials that transforms us.  We become new when we think new thoughts.  These thoughts need to line up with faith and God's word.
      Abraham is called the father of faith.  His transformation began when he looked up at the night sky and believed God when He told him his children would be as numerous as the stars.  Transformation begins with belief and belief is thinking in line with the word of God.
      During that summer, the Lord showed me three important lessons for transforming my mind.
      First, He showed me that he won't do anything through me that he doesn't first do to me.  he will transform my identity first and then my circumstances.  The children of Israel were stuck in the desert for forth years because their identity was stuck in Egypt.  They had gotten out of Egypt, but Egypt hadn't gotten out of them.  When they came to the Promised Land, they saw themselves as "grasshoppers" compared to their enemies.  Although I had been saved for years, my identity was less than what God thought of me.  I believed I was defeated in many areas of my life, but God called me "more than a conqueror."  I was afraid to step out into my call because my identity was wrapped up in what lay behind, not ahead.  I needed to "forget what lay behind and press on."
      Second, God showed me that I was stuck in unbelief because I only looked at life with natural eyes.  I forgot that "Faith is . . . the evidence of things not seen" (Hebrews 11:1), and "all things are possible to him who believes" (Mark 9:23).  I believed that "truth is what I see, not what i don't see," and "nothing is possible without the resources."  I was stuck in unbelief because I couldn't see the resources of the spiritual world.  These resources were released as I stepped forward into my calling.
      Third, God showed me that I had more power over my life than I was aware of.  He has blessed us with individual gifts including the gift of our imagination.  I spent years misunderstanding, undervaluing, and even mistrusting my imagination.  But like the gift of our minds, our imagination is from God.  used correctly, it empowers us.  Through the power of imagination, we create the stories of our lives.  When I got sick, I could have made up the story, "No matter how well you take care of your body you still end up sick.  It's not fair."  But instead i decided that my illness meant "I have been ignoring my heart's desire for years and this illness is just another symptom of that neglect."  Our lives mean what we decide they mean.  We decide what something means by the stories we tell.  God has given us the power to tell our stories our way.  A friend of mine lost his job when his place of work was shut down.  he could have said, "I worked hard all those years and I was faithful.  Now look what happened.  God let me down.  It's going to be hard to get a job in this terrible economy."  Instead he said, "Now I'm free to take time and listen to exactly what God has for me.  I'm free to be who i really ought to be."  That's telling yourself a good story.
      So how does all this tie into transformation?  We transform our lives by changing our minds; by believing we are what God's word says we are.  Transformation begins when we decide to disbelieve what we have been told by others (or what we see in the mirror each day), when we walk by faith, not by sight, and when we turn the facts of our lives into stories that take God's love into account no matter what.
      After a year of seeing tremendous transformation in my own life, including tremendous healing and restoration, I realized that God wants me to work less at transformation, not more.  If I try to change my outward circumstances, it's too hard.  I get frustrated and often give up.  But if I follow His guidelines for transformation, I change on the inside and outward things begin to change as well, often with little effort.
      Transformation is the food that feeds our heart's desire.  Like the Tree of Life, it tastes good.

      Mark Darroch teaces at the Spokane Dream Center (where his parents, Dave and Alice Darroch, are the senior pastors), mentors, and holds seminars and workshops designed to help others understand the spiritual laws that shape their destinies.  Faith on Purpose is available from Amazon.  For more information contact Mark at or on Facebook at


from The Fig Tree:

Urban farming improves access to food
By Mary Stamp

As a fifth generation member of his family in agriculture in Eastern Washington, Brian Estes brings a different face to farming from his maternal grandparents who operated the farm their grandparents started in the 1880s for herding sheep.

Brian Estes
“I have begun to rediscover farming. It did not occur to me that farming was anything other than what my grandparents did. I didn’t realize I would want this career,” said Brian, who became interested in social justice and environmental issues during college. “I fell in love with food, good food and eating well,” he said.

Along with promoting urban farming, community gardens and farmers’ markets as parts of urban food production, he has his own small, for-profit farm in Vinegar Flats with a half-acre vegetable garden, a perennial garden, a pasture and experimental projects.

Brian sells to small, local grocery stores, like Main Market in Spokane, and as far away as Leavenworth, where he recently delivered 100 pounds of sunchokes—also called Jerusalem artichokes.

He likes what he’s doing, from simple, mundane tasks of working with his hands, weeding, harvesting, hauling and selling, to dealing with agriculture policies. He finds a quality of life in working on building his own farm enterprise to add to the conversation about food systems from personal experience.

Brian also encourages discussion on the justice of food systems in terms of how food is produced, distributed and consumed.

Growing up in Richland, he often visited his grandparents on their wheat farm near Walla Walla and after they moved into town during his teenage years. Attending Christ the King Catholic Church in Richland, he became interested in philosophy, contemplation and values for living well in the world.

Brian came to Spokane nine years ago to study psychology and environmental studies at Gonzaga University. After completing his degree in 2007, he decided to stay.

His one-year Jesuit volunteer position with St. Margaret’s Women’s Shelter, part of Catholic Charities of Spokane, grew into his role on staff as garden program coordinator for the shelter’s Vinegar Flats Community Farm.
Brian Estes manages Vinegar Flats Community Garden

Vinegar Flats Community Garden of St. Margaret’s Shelter was established in 2002 near 27th and Oak close to Latah Creek on a third of an acre pasture behind the home of a family who offered the land to St. Margaret’s.

It started as a vegetable garden, where some of the 18 shelter residents worked to provide food for the emergency shelter.

Vinegar Flats serves as a community farm for the shelter residents, a place where they may grow and obtain fresh fruits and vegetables. It is a space for women to learn about gardening, gain retail experience and develop a sense of empowerment, while they “grow vegetables, fruit, flowers and community,” he said

The farm also produces for farmers’ markets, Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) sales, a few West Central grocery stores and meal sites.

Brian, who attends St. Ann parish in Spokane, manages the farm in the spring, summer and fall, and does organizing and community development in the winter months.

A Jesuit volunteer and AmeriCorps volunteer assist every year.

“They do hands-on operations of the garden and in the greenhouse, planting starts for the garden, doing plant sales and helping organize other community gardens. A St. Margaret’s Next Steps trainee is learning to manage the greenhouse, building management and sales experience,” he said.

Some produce is sold at the South Perry and West Central farmers markets, which are now able to accept the EBT—electronic benefits transaction—cards that have taken the place of food stamps, Brian said.

The AmeriCorps and Jesuit volunteers are also doing a worm bin compost project with children at St. Margaret’s. The Health District is helping with a community kitchen to teach cooking skills.

The community farm can help meet needs of urban and local food systems, providing food that is affordable and accessible for low-income people, he said.

He expanded the program and production, increasing it to producing 4,500 pounds of food by tripling the size of garden so after four years it now operates as much like a small farm as a traditional community garden.

He also gives his time, energy and expertise to farmers, farmers markets and community gardens, exploring different models such as Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA) and plant-a-row options, so backyard gardeners can donate fresh food to food banks.

Setting up CSA sales and being able to accept food stamps dropped barriers to access at farmers’ markets, Brian said.

CSA introduces diverse vegetables—like kale—and teaches customers how to cook them.

He also helps farmers’ markets find ways to extend the season for fresh produce by helping people learn to eat more types of produce.

Tomatoes, for example, are available fresh for only four to eight weeks. Early season produce includes greens, cabbage and peas. People who change their menus to include them can eat fresh produce longer.

“Much of people’s lives comes from their relationship with food,” Brian said. “I was a picky eater and liked junk food until I was 18. When I was 14, I wanted to open a hamburger stand.”

Drawn to social aspects of food —people eating together—he learned about the history of people as social beings.

More neighborhoods offer resources of fresh, nutritional food at affordable prices, he said, adding that there’s more interest in urban planning around food production and in challenging current farm policies that tend to subsidize large-scale agriculture.

“As cities evolved in the last 50 to 75 years with cars more prevalent, it affected how cities were designed in terms of where people work and live,” he said.

“Specialty markets where people once bought whole food are drying up in favor of large, buy-all-you-need grocery stores. People who cannot drive to those supermarkets pay higher prices and have limited options. These are considerations in revitalizing neighborhoods.

“Can food access be restructured?” he asked.

For example, the Spokane Regional Health District supported development of several West Central Spokane “Healthy Corner Stores” that can sell fresh produce and whole foods at enough profit so that they will stock them.

Brian calls for influencing the macro food system through changing national agricultural policies that subsidize huge farms—for example, to produce corn for soda and highly processed foods—but do not subsidize whole, locally grown or organic foods.

“Policies have influence through direct payments to farmers to grow certain commodities,” he said.

“As farms have grown bigger and grow single crops or focus on livestock, farmers have lost resources they had in diverse farms, such as food to feed pigs or manure to fertilize. So many farms rely on transporting waste, rather than using it to fertilize.

“The transition to monoculture production in the 20th century reduced creative options for feeding people,” Brian said. “Most farmers want to feed people well and care for the land. We need to challenge the disconnect between large farmers and small organic farmers who distrust each other.

“Immigration and environmental issues also affect farming,” he said. “How can we operate our food system to mitigate problems, increase quality of life and create more justice? We will not feed everyone on small plots or small farms on the periphery of cities. We need to know the challenges.”

Local food systems provide the best way to understand positive or negative outcomes of food production, he said, in contrast to buying food products grown halfway around the world.

“I care about farm workers and farmers,” Brian said. “We need to be invested in the whole picture based on our values.”

In 2009, the South Perry Farmers’ Market lost its location and manager, so Brian has been helping restructure it. He has finished a two-year term on the board and continues as an ex-officio advisor.

The Grant Community Garden started in February 2011, when the Parks and Recreation Board opened parks for nonprofit community gardens to use. The South Perry Business and Neighborhood Association contracts to manage it, and 24 individuals and nonprofits signed up to care for their garden beds organically in 2011.

The Grant Garden Club donates food to the East Central Community Center’s food bank.

Brian also assists the Riverfront Farm and West Central Marketplace.

“I try to be mindful of my beliefs and values in my day-to-day life,” he said.

Brian’s thinking on farming has also been influenced by visits to Central America in 2005, 2007 and 2008. In 2005, he studied four months in Costa Rica and Nicaragua through a Boston University program on environmental and sustainable development. He also traveled in the West, Southwest and Mexico, visiting farms, learning what communities are doing as people pursue their wellbeing.

He hopes to increase discussion about growing one’s own food and access to safe, nutritious food, but knows discussions can turn controversial when addressing barriers to access safe, fresh food.

“I see enthusiasm about community gardens, raising chickens and knowing the farmers who grow our food,” he said. “Eating organic, local food is an immediate, approachable argument for change. The food tastes better.”

The cost of farmland is one part of the reason there are fewer farmers than ever before, he reported. Because farmers struggle to make a profit, many are drawn into the corporate food production system that relies on genetically modified crops and heavy use of chemicals.

Because farms operate on debt, from which farmers try to recover each year, big farmers are buying up neighbors’ land and leasing it.

Brian said his family now leases their property near Walla Walla for production of wheat, sweet onions and garbanzos. The choices of crops have become more limited as the markets for commodity crops globalize and local infrastructure is lost. Many Walla Walla area producers growing asparagus lost their market when processing plants closed and moved to South America.

Farms are dependent on the global system where distributors and marketers influence what they can grow affordably, Brian said.


Friday, October 12, 2012

Genesis 4

CSV draft / HNV


multi        interlinear        parallel      notes

Genesis 3      INDEX      Genesis 5

  1  And the man yada Chavvah his wife, and she conceived, and gave birth to Qayin, and said, "I have gotten a manchild from GOD."

  And again she gave birth, to Qayin's brother Habel.  And  Habel became a keeper of sheep, but Qayin was a tiller of the ground.

  And it came in process of time Qayin brought an offering to GOD from the fruit of the ground.

  And Habel brought also of the firstborn of his flock and of the fatlings; and GOD had regard for Habel and his offering,

  And for Qayin and his offering he had no regard; and Qayin became very angry, and his face fell.

  And GOD said to Qayin, "Why are you angry?  Why has your face fallen?

  If you do well, will you not be lifted up; and if you do not do well, a sin-offering is lying at the entrance; its desire is for you, and you control it."

  Qayin said to Habel, his brother, "Let us go into the field;" and it came to pass in the field, and Qayin rose up against Habel his brother, and killed him.

  And GOD said to Qayin, "Where is Habel, your brother?" and he said, "I do not know; am I my brother's keeper?"

10  And He said, "What have you done? The voice of your brother's blood is crying unto me from the ground.

11  And now you are cursed because of the ground, which has opened its mouth to receive your brother's blood from your hand.

12  When you till the ground, it will no longer yield its strength to you; you shall be a vagrant wanderer in the land."

13  And Qayin said to GOD, "My punishment is greater than I can bear.

14  Behold, you have driven me out this day from the face of the ground: I will be hidden from your face, and I will be a vagrant wanderer in the land, and it will be that whoever finds me will kill me."

15  And GOD said to him, "Therefore whoever slays Kayin, vengeance will be taken on him sevenfold." And GOD appointed a sign for Kayin, lest any finding him should strike him.

16  And Kayin went out from the presence of GOD's, and lived in the land, wandering east of Eden.

17  And Kayin yada his wife, and she conceived, and gave birth to Hanokh.  And he built a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son Hanokh.

18  And to Hanokh was born `Irad; and `Irad begat Mechuyael, and Mechuyael begat Metushael,and Metushael begat Lamek.

19  And Lamek took two wives: the name of the one was `Adah, and the name of the other Tzillah.

20  `Adah gave birth to Yabal; he was the father of those who dwell in tents and have cattle.

21   And his brother was Yubal; he was the father of all who handle the lyre and flute.

22   And Tzillah also gave birth to Tubal-Qayin, forger and artificer of all brass and iron; and the sister was Tubal-Qayin was Na'amah.


23 Lamekh said to his wives, "`Adah and Tzillah, Hear my voice, You wives of Lamekh, listen to my speech, For I have slain a man for wounding me, A young man for bruising me.

24 If Qayin will be avenged seven times, Truly Lamekh seventy-seven times.

25 Adam knew his wife again. She gave birth to a son, and named him Shet. For, she said, "God has appointed me another child instead of Hevel, for Qayin killed him."

26 There was also born a son to Shet, and he named him Enosh. Then men began to call on the LORD's name.

Notes on Jubilees 1

      Prologue gives admirable account of contents of the book. At once a history and a chronological system dominated by sacred number 7.  History extends from creation to legislation on Sinai. Thus it embraces Genesis and part of Exodus.  A11 is re-written from standpoint of strictest Judaism.
      throughout all the years of the world. These words imply intention of the author to write history up to time of Messianic kingdom. Cf. i. 26.

      1. third month, on the sixteenth day of the month. Completes imperfect date of Exod. xix. l. (Same day as God appears to Jacob on way to Egypt, xliv. 5.) For the rest of the verse cf. Exod. xxiv. 12.

      2-4 a. Exod. xxiv. 15-18.

      3. out of.  Emended in accordance with Exod. xxiv. 26, מתוך by a change of one letter.
          flaming. Change of one vowel would give 'devouring' as in Exod. xxiv. 17.

      4. God taught him the earlier and the later history. Cf. i. 26; also Megilla 19 b 'The Holy One, blessed be his name, showed to Moses all the minutiae of the law and all that the Sopherim would renew in later times' ; so also Shem. Rabb. 40 (Wünsche, 282), Menachoth 29 b, Wajikra Rabb. 26 (Beer).

      5-10. Ezra ix. 9, 10, 11 ; Exod. xxiii. 33, xxxiii. i, 3 ; Deut. xxx. 1-20, xxxi. 19, 20, 24-6, 27 ; 2 Kings xvii. 7-17.

      5. write them, &c. Cf. Exod. xxxiv. 27.
          how I, &c. Cf. Ezra ix. 9.
          transgressing. An emendation, slhlto from 'asheto of bed.

      6. Deut. xxx. I.

      7. write. See i. 27 (note). On verse cf. Deut. xxxi. 27 ; E.xod. xxxiii. 3.

    10. Captivity of Israel who had forsaken ' my sanctuary', &c. Cf. Deut. x.xviii. 15-68, and Lev. xxvi. 14-39.

    11-13. Idolatry and captivity of Judah. Cf. Ezek. xx. 28, 31 ; 2 Chron. xxxiii. 3, xxviii. 3 ; 1 En. xcix. 7.

    12. I will send witnesses . . . but they will not hear.  Cf. 2 Chron. xxiv. 19, xxxvi. 15-16; Jer. xxv. 4; Matt, xxiii. 34 ; Luke xi. 49.
          but . . . will slay the witnesses. Neh. ix. 26.
          work evil before My eyes. 2 Kings xxi. 15.

    13. Cf. xxi. 22 ; Isa. i. 15 ; 2 Kings xxi. 14.
          for a prey = lahabl emended from lahebl.

    14. Captive Judah forgets service of God. Cf. Deut. iv. 28, xxviii. 36, 64.

    15-17. Repentance of Judah will bring return and rebuilding of the Temple.

    15. Deut. iv. 30, 29; Jer. xxix. 13, 14.

    16. remove them the plant of uprightness. The expression 'Plant of uprightness' = Israel from the outset. Original perhaps is Jer. xxxii. 41. Cf. i En. x. 6, xciii. 2, 5, 10. Not improbably ' in this land' was lost after the verb. We might read וגטעתים for והסיעתים = 'I will plant them in this land.' Cf. Jer. xxxii. 41. Reversal of the judgement in 13 is required here. 
          they shall be for a blessing and not for a curse. Zech. viii. 13.
          the head and not the tail. Deut. xxviii. 13 ; i En. ciii. 11.

    17. The second Temple, ab > ' their' before God. Cf. Exod. xxv. 8, xxix. 45; Lev. xxvi. 12; Ezek. xiv. 11; Jer. xxiv. 7, xxx. 22.

    18. Cf. Deut. xxxi. 6.

    19. do not forsake . . . rule over them. 2 Kings xxi. 14; Deut. ix. 26; Ps. cvi. 41.

    20. Ps. li. 10. Beliar, see note on xv. 33.

    21. Deut. ix. 26, 29. a holy spirit. Cf. i. 23 and xv. 14 (note).

    22. Deut. xxxi. 27. confess, lie. Lev. xxvi. 40; Neh. ix. 2.

    23. turn, &c. 2 Chron. vi. 38.  circumcise. Deut. x. 16, xxx. 6.  I will cleanse them ... eternity. Implies no more exile for Israel.

    24. I will be their Father, &c. From 2 Sam. vii. 14; used in 2 Cor. vi. 18 of all Christians. In 2 Sam. vii. 14 these words refer to Solomon, God is the Father of the nation in Deut. xxxii. 6; Isa. Ixiii. 16; Jer. xxxi. 9; Cf. also Exod. iv. 22, 23; Deut. xiv. i ; Isa. xliii. 6; Judges ix. 4. In Sir. xxiii. i ; Wisd. ii. 16, &c., it is used of the righteous individual, elsewhere of righteous Israel. In Jubilees Israelites are God's children in virtue of their physical descent from Jacob. Cf. Wisd. xviii. 13. Also Sayings of the Fathers, iii. 22 (Taylor's ed.).

    25. children of the living God. Hosea i. 10.

    26. Moses receives 'Jubilees' as a secret revelation. Cf. esp. 4 Ezra xiv. 6, also Exod. xxxiv. 27-28 ; Deut. x. 2-4. Conclusion of this verse implies that history of 'Jubilees' is to be brought down to author's own time — that of the early Maccabees. Like 1 En. xxv. 3, l.xxvii. i ; Ass. Mos. x; i En. xci-civ, he expected God would dwell with man. He lived in hourly expectation of the 'end of the times'.  Like author of 'Beast Visions', 1 En. lxxxvii-xc, he believed this would be accomplished by a Messiah, but his Messiah was to spring from Judah, cf. xxxi. 18 n.

    27. Angels only accompany Jahweh in Deut. xxxiii. 2, they mediate indirectly in Ezek. xl. 3. Zechariah and Daniel assign even a larger role to the angels. Test. Dan. vi further develops the idea. In N.T. times the ministry of angels has become the universal means of approaching or hearing from God. Expressly affirmed by Philo, De Somniis, i. 22, Josephus, Ant. XV. 5.3; Paul (Gal. iii. 19), Stephen (Acts vii. 53), and author of 'Hebrews' ii. 2, also Samaritans (Gesenius, Carm. Sam. 15), De Sacy, xii. 16. Hostility to Christians caused Rabbis to revert to older view in Shabb. 88 i, Shem. Rabb. 28. The angel here writes, not the Pentateuch, but a history up to the Messianic kingdom, but Deut. xxviii-xxx may be meant.

    28. Read this verse after 25.  eyes of all. Cf. Rev. i. 7.
          King on Mount Zion. Cf. Isa. xxiv. 23.

    29. angel of the presence, derived from Isa. lxiii.9. Cf. Test. Judah x.w. ; i En. xl. 2 ; probably Michael, Israel's guardian angel ; Weber, Jüdische Theologie,² 168 ; Dan. x. 13, 21, xii. i ; I En. xx. 5 ; 2 En xxii. 6.
          went before, &c. Exod. xiv. 19.
          from the day of the [new] creation > 'new', inserted wrongly.
          when > b. Possibly an interpolation, or a mistake of ώς for έως; translate ' until '.
          Author as Isa. Ixv. 17, Ixvi. 22 ; Test. Levi xviii, believed in a gradual transformation of the world, moral and physical.  Perhaps borrowed from Mazdeism (cf. Soderblom, La Vie future d'après le Mazdéisme, 254).  From 1100 B.C. this view was supplanted by the belief in a violent and sudden revolution of things (l En. xci. 16, xiv. 4; I Apoc. Bar. xxxii. 6, Ivii. 2 ; 4 Ezra vii. 75 ; 2 Peter iii. 13 ; Rev. xxi. 1.  The author divides this process of renewal into three periods:  1st, Deluge, v. 12, 13; 2nd, choice of Israel, i.e. foundation of Hebrew nation, .xix. 25, cf. ii. 22; 3rd, establishment of Messianic kingdom, cf. i. 29, iv. 26, v. 12. This division is unique.
          renewed for healing, as Rev. xxii. 2.

Tuesday, October 9, 2012



CH 6      INDEX      CH 8


  1. And these are the names of the sons of Noah: Japheth, Ham and Shem; and children were born to them after the flood, for they had taken wives before the flood.

  2. These are the sons of Japheth; Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshech and Tiras, seven sons.

  3. And the sons of Gomer were Askinaz, Rephath and Tegarmah.

  4. And the sons of Magog were Elichanaf and Lubal.

  5. And the children of Madai were Achon, Zeelo, Chazoni and Lot.

  6. And the sons of Javan were Elisha, Tarshish, Chittim and Dudonim.

  7. And the sons of Tubal were Ariphi, Kesed and Taari.

  8. And the sons of Meshech were Dedon, Zaron and Shebashni.

  9. And the sons of Tiras were Benib, Gera, Lupirion and Gilak; these are the sons of Japheth according to their families, and their numbers in those days were about four hundred and sixty men.

10. And these are the sons of Ham; Cush, Mitzraim, Phut and Canaan, four sons; and the sons of Cush were Seba, Havilah, Sabta, Raama and Satecha, and the sons of Raama were Sheba and Dedan.

11. And the sons of Mitzraim were Lud, Anom and Pathros, Chas- loth and Chaphtor.

12. And the sons of Phut were Gebul, Hadan, Benah and Adan.

13. And the sons of Canaan were Zidon, Heth, Amori, Gergashi, Hivi, Arkee, Seni, Arodi, Zimodi and Chamothi.

14. These are the sons of Ham, according to their families, and their numbers in those days were about seven hundred and thirty men.

15. And these are the sons of Shem; Elam, Ashur, Arpachshad, Lud and Aram, five sons; and the sons of Elam were Shushan, Machul and Harmon.

16. And the sons of Ashar were Mirus and Mokil, and the sons of Arpachshad were Shelach, Anar and Ashcol.

17. And the sons of Lud were Pethor and Bizayon, and the sons of Aram were Uz, Chul, Gather and Mash.

18. These are the sons of Shem, according to their families; and their numbers in those days were about three hundred men.

19. These are the generations of Shem; Shem begat Arpachshad and Arpachshad begat Shelach, and Shelach begat Eber and to Eber were born two children, the name of one was Peleg, for in his days the sons of men were divided, and in the latter days, the earth was divided.

20. And the name of the second was Yoktan, meaning that in his day the lives of the sons of men were diminished and lessened.

21. These are the sons of Yoktan; Almodad, Shelaf, Chazarmoveth, Yerach, Hadurom, Ozel, Diklah, Obal, Abimael, Sheba, Ophir, Havilah and Jobab; all these are the sons of Yoktan.

22. And Peleg his brother begat Yen, and Yen begat Serug, and Serug begat Nahor, and Nahor begat  Terah, and Terah was thirty-eight years old, and he begat Haran and Nahor. 

 23. And Cush the son of Ham, the son of Noah, took a wife in those days, in his old age, and she bare a son, and they called his name Nimrod, saying, at that time the sons of men again began to rebel and transgress against God, and the child grew up, and his father loved him exceedingly, for he was the son of his old age.

24. And the garments of skin which God made for Adam and his wife, when they went out of the garden, were given to Cush.

25. For after the death of Adam and his wife, the garments were given to Enoch, the son of Jered, and when Enoch was taken up to God, he gave them to Methuselah, his son.

26. And at the death of Methuselah, Noah took them and brought them to the ark, and they were with him until he went out of the ark. 

27. And in their going out. Ham  stole those garments from Noah his  father, and he took them and hid them from his brothers. 

28. And when Ham begat his first born Cush, he gave him the garments in secret, and they were with Cush many days.

29. And Cush also concealed them from his sons and brothers, and when Cush had begotten Nimrod, he gave him those garments through his love for him, and Nimrod grew up, and when he was twenty years old he put on those garments.

30. And Nimrod became strong when he put on the garments, and God gave him might and strength, and he was a mighty hunter in the earth, yea, he was a mighty hunter in the field, and he hunted the animals and he built altars, and he of- fered upon them the animals before the Lord.

31. And Nimrod Strengthened himself, and he rose up from amongst his brethren, and he fought the battles of his brethren against all their enemies round about.

32. And the Lord delivered all the enemies of his brethren in his hands, and God prospered him from time to time in his battles, and he reigned upon earth,

33. Therefore it became current in those days, when a man ushered forth those that he had trained up for battle, he would say to them, like God did to Nimrod, who was a mighty hunter in the earth, and who succeeded in the battles that prevailed against his brethren, that he delivered them from the hands of their enemies, so may God strengthen us and deliver us this day.

34. And when Nimrod was forty years old, at that time there was a war between his brethren and the children of Japheth, so that they were in the power of their enemies.

35. And Nimrod went forth at that time, and he assembled all the sons of Cush and their families, about four hundred and sixty men, and he hired also from some of his friends and acquaintances about eighty men, and he gave them their hire, and he went with them to battle, and when he was on the road, Nimrod strengthened the hearts of the people that went with him.

36. And he said to them, do not fear, neither be alarmed, for all our enemies will be delivered into our hands, and you may do with them as you please.

37. And all the men that went were about five hundred, and they fought against their enemies, and they destroyed them, and subdued them, and Nimrod placed standing officers over them in their respective places,

38. And he look some of their children as security, and they were all servants to Nimrod and to his brethren, and Nimrod and all the people that were with him turned homeward.

39. And when Nimrod had joyfully returned from battle, after having conquered his enemies, all his brethren, together with those who knew him before, assembled to make him king over them, and they placed the regal crown upon his head,

40. And he set over his subjects and people, princes, judges and rulers, as is the custom amongst kings.

41. And he placed Terah the son of Nahor the prince of his host, and he dignified him and elevated him above all his princes.

42. And whilst he was reigning according to his heart's desire, after having conquered all his enemies around, he advised with his counsellors to build a city for his palace, and they did so.

43. And they found a large valley opposite to the east, and they built him a large and extensive city, and Nimrod called the name of the city that he built Shinar, for the Lord had vehemently shaken his enemies and destroyed them,

44. And Nimrod dwelt in Shinar, and he reigned securely, and he fought with his enemies and he subdued them, and he prospered in all his battles, and his kingdom became very great.

45. And all nations and tongues heard of his fame, and they gathered themselves * to him, and they bowed down to the earth, and they brought him offerings, and he became their lord and king, and they all dwelt with him in the city of Shinar, and Nimrod reigned in the earth over all the sons of Noah, and they were all under his power and counsel.

46. And all the earth was of one tongue and words of union, but Nimrod did not go in the ways of the Lord, and he was more wicked than all the men that were before him, from the days of the flood until those days.

47. And he made Gods of wood and stone, and he bowed down to them, and he rebelled against the Lord, and taught all his subjects and the people of the earth his wicked ways; and Mardon his son was more wicked than his father.

48. And every one that heard of the acts of Mardon the son of Nimrod would say, concerning him, from the wicked goeth forth wickedness; therefore it became a proverb in the whole earth, saying, from the wicked goeth forth wickedness, and it was current in the words of men from that time to this. 

49. And Terah the son of Nahor, prince of Nimrod's host, was in those days very great in the sight of the king and his subjects, and the king and princes loved him, and they ele- vated him very high.

50. And Terah * took a wife, and her name was Amthelo the daughter of Cornebo; and the wife of Terah conceived and bare him a son in those days.

51. Terah was seventy years old when he begat him, and Terah called the name of his son that was born to himt Abram, because the king had raised him in those days, and digni- fied him above all his princes that were with him. 

   vs. 45:  According to Jasher, (and, I believe, Dr. Clarke gives the same opinion of some Christian commentators,) an inference can be drawn that there was a partial separation of mankind long before the affair at Babel, as the confusion of languages did not take place till about 340 years after the flood, being the end of Peleg's life, or the 48th year of the life of Abraham; and having shown that the date of Abraham's birth should be A. M. 1948 instead of 2008, it will follow that the confusion of Babel took place A. M. 1996. I have no doubt that a separation took place before then, until they were reunited under the dominion of Nimrod. Owing to this separation, and their numerous increase, their having no regular form of government, and particularly their petty wars among each other, their first language would branch out into many variations, but still near enough to the original to be understood by each other, and sufficiently altered to be called different tongues; and as a number of families might, by co-operating together, be called a petty nation, so would some alteration in their speech, or tongue, be sufficient to distinguish them. Jasher tells us, that when Nimrod was 40 years old, there was war between his brethren and the children of Japheth; (see verse 34;) and that they were under the power of their enemies; that with a few people, (of the children of Cush only,) he made war, and subdued them; and that they all came to dwell with him in Shinar. I have frequently had to remark that the word all must not in the Hebrew be taken in that latitude, as it would in the modern lan- guages. When a united number is intended to be expressed, the word all is used as in verse 35, when "Nimrod assembled all the sons of Cush, and their families, about four hundred and sixty men," by this is meant that all thosc assembled of the families of Gush were four hundred and sixty men. Sufficient examples will be found in Jasher as well as in scripture, where כל must be understood in this sense. I therefore understand in this verse, not that all mankind came to live in Shinar, but that all those that did come, resided in Shinar. And if, owing to their former separation into petty nations, they must have adopted various dialects sufficient to distinguish them, as Jasher tells us that "all nations and tongues heard his fame," so when they were reunited, and become under one government, not from choice, but from compulsion, then they became again of one lip and words of union; for thus would I translate ורבים אהדים, commonly translated, and one speech, which is the literal translation, meaning that after their cessation from war and petty broils, they again spoke in one lip and words of union, in opposition to separate dialects and words of strife. This inference of a former separation will explain that part of the speech of the builders of Babel, "we will build a tower, &c., &c., lest we be scattered upon the face of the earth," alluding to their former dissensions, by which means they had originally separated, and become scattered, but wishing to unite in idolatry, and raise an amazing tower, they hoped it would be the means of uniting the whole race of mankind under their impious standard. It seems that the famihes of Cush, Mitzraim, Phut and Canaan were the chief instigators to this impious act, and that out of all the families then existing, not of Ham only, but the impious of all the families that assembled to the task, were 600,000 men; and they chose a valley at two days' distance from Shinar, say twenty miles. I have no doubt the numbers of the human race were very considerable at that time, as it was 340 years after the flood, and there was plenty of time for the propagation of men to three or four millions of inhabitants. 

   vs. 50:  By this it seems he had another wife who bare Abram, different from her who bare Haran and Nahor. See verse 22.

   vs. 51:  אברם  From this it seems that Abram was called so, not because he was a mighty father, but because Terah was a mighty father in the court of Nimrod, and therefore God changed his name to Abraham, appropriating to him in a much more extensive sense, the meaning which Terah applied to himself.



CH 5      INDEX      CH 7


  1. At that time, after the death of Methuselah, the Lord said to Noah, go thou with thy household into the ark; behold I will gather to thee all the animals of the earth, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air, and they shall all come and surround the ark.

  2. And thou shalt go and seat thyself by the doors of the ark, and all the beasts, the animals, and the fowls, shall assemble and place themselves before thee, and such of them as shall come and crouch before thee, shalt thou take and deliver into the hands of thy sons, who shall bring them to the ark, and all that will stand before thee thou shalt leave.

  3. And the Lord brought this about on the next day, and animals, beasts and fowls came in great mul- titudes and surrounded the ark.

  4. And Noah went and seated himself by the door of the ark, and of all flesh that crouched before him, he brought into the ark, and all that stood before him he left upon earth.

  5. And a lioness came, with her two whelps, male and female, and the three crouched before Noah, and the two whelps rose up against the lioness and smote her, and made her flee from her place, and she went away, and they returned to their places, and crouched upon the earth before Noah.

  6. And the lioness ran away, and stood in the place of the lions.

  7. And Noah saw this, and * wondered greatly, and he rose and took the two whelps, and brought them into the ark.

  8. And Noah brought into the ark from all living creatures that were upon earth, so that there was none left but which Noah brought into the ark.

  9. Two and two came to Noah into the ark, but from the clean animals, and clean fowls, he brought seven couples, as God had commanded him.

10. And all the animals, and beasts, and fowls, were still there, and they surrounded the ark at every place, and the rain had not descended till seven days after.

11. And on that day, the Lord caused the whole earth to shake, and the sun darkened, and the foundations of the world raged, and the whole earth was moved violently, and the lightning flashed, and the thunder roared, and all the fountains in the earth were broken up, such as was not known to the inhabitants before; and God did this mighty act, in order to terrify the sons of men, that there might be no more evil upon earth.

12. And still the sons of men would not return from their evil ways, and they increased the anger of the Lord at that time, and did not even direct their hearts to all this.

13. And at the end of seven days, in the six hundredth year of the life of Noah, the waters of the flood were upon the earth.

14. And all the fountains of the deep were broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened, and the rain was upon the earth forty days and forty nights.

15. And Noah and his household, and all the living creatures that were with him, came into the ark on account of the waters of the flood, and the Lord shut him in.

16. And all the sons of men that were left upon the earth, became exhausted through evil on account of the rain, for the waters were coming more violently upon the earth, and the animals and beasts were still sur- rounding the ark.

17. And the sons of men assembled together, about * seven hundred thousand men and women, and they came unto Noah to the ark.

18. And they ealled to Noah, saying, open for us that we may come to thee in the ark — and wherefore shall we die?

19. And Noah, with a loud voice, answered them from the ark, saying, have you not all rebelled against the Lord, and said that he does not exist? and therefore the Lord brought upon you this evil, to destroy and cut you off from the face of the earth.

20. Is not this the thing that I spoke to you of one hundred and twenty years back, and you would not hearken to the voice of the Lord, and now do you desire to live upon earth?

21. And they said to Noah, we are ready to return to the Lord; only open for us that we may live and not die.

22. And Noah answered them, saying, behold now that you see the trouble of your souls, you wish to return to the Lord; why did you not return during these hundred and twenty years, which the Lord granted you as the determined period?

23. But now you come and tell me this on account of the troubles of your souls, now also the Lord will not listen to you, neither will he give ear to you on this day, so that you will not now succeed in your wishes.

24. And the sons of men approached in order to break into the ark, to come in on account of the rain, for they could not bear the rain upon them.

25. And the Lord sent all the beasts and animals that stood round the ark. And the beasts overpowered them and drove them from that place, and every man went his way and they again scattered themselves upon the face of the earth.

26. And the rain was still descending upon the earth, and it descended forty days and forty nights, and the waters prevailed greatly upon the earth; and all flesh that was upon the earth or in the waters died, whether men, animals, beasts, creeping things or birds of the air, and there only remained Noah and those that were with him in the ark.

27. And the waters prevailed and they greatly increased upon the earth, and they lifted up the ark and it was raised from the earth.

28. And the ark floated upon the face of the waters, and it was tossed upon the waters so that all the living creatures within were turned about like pottage in the cauldron.

29. And great anxiety seized all tlie living creatures that were in the ark, and the ark was like to be broken.

30. And all the living creatures that were in the ark were terrified, and the lions roared, and the oxen lowed, and the wolves howled, and every living creature in the ark spoke and lamented in its own language, so that their voices reached to a great distance, and Noah and his sons cried and wept in their troubles; they were greatly afraid that they had reached the gates of death.

31. And Noah prayed unto the Lord, and he cried unto him on account of this, and he said, Lord help us, for we have no strength to bear this evil that has encompassed us, for the waves of the waters have surrounded us, mischievous torrents have terrified us, the snares of death have come before us; answer us, O Lord, answer us, light up thy countenance toward us and be gracious to us, redeem us and deliver us.

32. And the Lord hearkened to the voice of Noah, and the Lord remembered him.

33. And a wind passed over the earth, and the waters were still and the ark rested.

34. And the fountains of the deep and the windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained.

35. And the waters decreased in those days, and the ark rested upon the mountains of Ararat.

36. And Noah then opened the windows of the ark, and Noah still called out to the Lord at that time and he said, O Lord, who didst form the earth and the heavens and all that are therein, bring forth our souls from this confinement, and from the prison wherein thou hast placed us, for I am much wearied with sighing.

37. And the Lord hearkened to the voice of Noah, and said to him, when thou shalt have completed a full year thou shalt then go forth.

38. And at the revolution of the year, when a full year was completed to Noah's dwelling in the ark, the waters were dried from off the earth, and Noah put off the covering of the ark.

39. At that time, on the twenty-seventh day of the second month, the earth was dry, but Noah and his sons, and those that were with him, did not go out from the ark until the Lord told them.

40. And the day came that the Lord told them to go out, and they all went out from the ark.

41. And they went and returned every one to his way and to his place, and Noah and his sons dwelt in the land that God had told them, and they served the Lord all their days, and the Lord blessed Noah and his sons on their going out from the ark.

42. And he said to them, be fruitful and fill all the earth; become strong and increase abundantly in the earth and multiply therein.

   vs. 7:  At the height to which even the animals of the earth had corrupted themselves, that the young whelps could so unnaturally rise up against their parent in such a time of disaster.

   vs. 17:  It must be remembered, that according to this book, a third part of the earth had already been destroyed by the overdowing of the river Gihon. See chapter 2, verse 6.



CH 4      INDEX      CH 6


  1. And it was in the eighty fourth year of the life of Noah, that Enosh the son of Seth died; he was nine hundred and five years old at his death.

  2. And in the one hundred and seventy ninth year of the life of Noah, Cainan the son of Enosh died, and all the days of Cainan were nine hundred and ten years, and he died.

  3. And in the two hundred and thirty fourth year of the life of Noah, Mahlallel the son of Cainan died, and the days of Mahlallel were eight hundred and ninety five years, and he died.

  4. And Jered the son of Mahlallel died in those days, in the three hundred and thirty sixth year of the life of Noah; and all the days of Jered were nine hundred and sixty two years, and he died.

  5. And all who followed the Lord died in those days, before they saw the evil which God declared to do upon earth.

  6. And after the lapse of many years, in the four hundred and eightieth year of the life of Noah, when all those men, who followed the Lord had died away from amongst the sons of men, and only * Methuselah was then left, God said unto Noah and Methuselah, saying,

  7. Speak ye, and proclaim to the sons of men, saying, thus saith the Lord, return from your evil ways and forsake your works, and the Lord will repent of the evil that he declared to do to you, so that it shall not come to pass.

  8. For thus saith the Lord, behold I give you a period of one hundred and twenty years; if you will turn to me and forsake your evil ways, then will I also turn away from the evil which I told you, and it shall not exist, saith the Lord.

  9. And Noah and Methuseleh spoke all the words of the Lord to the sons of men, day after day, con- stantly speaking to them.

10. But the sons of men would not hearken to them, nor incline their ears to their words, and they were stiffnecked.

11. And the Lord granted them a period of one hundred and twenty years, saying, if they will return, then will God repent of the evil, so as not to destroy the earth.

12. And Noah the son of Lamech refrained from taking a wife in those days, to beget children, for he said, surely now God will destroy the earth, wherefore then shall I beget children?

13. And Noah was a just man, he was perfect in his generation, and the Lord chose him to raise up seed from his seed upon the face of the earth.

14. And the Lord said unto Noah, take unto thee a wife, and beget children, for I have seen thee righteous before me in this generation.

15. And thou shalt raise up seed, and thy children with thee, in the midst of the earth; and Noah went and took a wife, and he chose * Naamah the daughter of Lamech, and she was five hundred and eighty years old.

16. And Noah was four hundred and ninety eight years old, when he took Naamah for a wife.

17. And Naamah conceived and bare a son, and he called his name Japheth, saying, God has enlarged me in the earth; and she conceived again and bare a son, and he called his name Shem, saying, God has made me a remnant, to raise up seed in the midst of the earth.

18. And Noah was five hundred and two years old when Naamah bare Shem, and the boys grew up and went in the ways of the Lord, in all that Methuselah and Noah their father taught them.

19. And Lamech the father of Noah died in those days; yet verily he did not go with all his heart in the ways of his father, and he died in the five hundred and ninety-fifth year of the lifc of Noah.

20. And all the days of Lamech were seven hundred and seventy years and he died.

21. And all the sons of men who knew the Lord, died in that year before the Lord brought evil upon them; for the Lord willed them to die, so as not to behold the evil that God would bring upon their brothers and relatives, as he had so declared to do.

22. In that time, the Lord said to Noah and Methuselah, stand forth and proclaim to the sons of men all the words that I spoke to you in those days, peradventure they may turn from their evil ways, and I will then repent of the evil and will not bring it.

23. And Noah and Methuselah stood forth, and said in the ears of the sons of men, all that God had spoken concerning them.

24. But the sons of men would not hearken, neither would they incline their ears to all their declarations.

25. And it was after this that the Lord said to Noah, the end of all flesh is come before me, on account of their evil deeds, and behold I will destroy the earth.

26. And do thou take unto thee Gopher wood, and go to a certain place and make a large ark, and place it in tliat spot.

27. And thus shalt thou make it; three hundred cubits its length, fifty cubits broad and thirty cubits high.

28. And thou shalt make unto thee a door, open at its side, and to a cubit thou shalt finish above, and cover it within and without with pitch.

29. And behold I will bring the flood of waters upon the earth, and all flesh be destroyed, from under the heavens, all that is upon earth shall perish.

30. And thou and thy household shall go and gather two couple of all living things, male and female, and shall bring them to the ark, to raise up seed from them upon earth.

31. And gather unto thee all food that is eaten by all the animals, that there may be food for thee and for them.

32. And thou shalt choose for thy sons three maidens, from the daughters of men, and they shall be wives to thy sons.

33. And Noah rose up, and he made the ark, in the place where God had commanded him, and Noah did as God had ordered him.

34. In his five hundred and ninety fifth year Noah commenced to make the ark, and he made the ark in five years, as the Lord had commanded.

35. Then Noah took the three daughters of Eliakim, son of Methuselah, for wives for his sons, as the Lord had commanded Noah.

36. And it was at that time Methuselah the son of Enoch died; nine hundred and sixty years old was he, at his death.

   vs. 6:  Methuselah only was left of the good ones who did not die, besides Noah, who is mentioned in the beginning of the verse, in the 450th year of the life of Noah.

   vs. 15:  Naamah the daughter of Lamech in the line of Cain.  Alternate reading: Nahmah the daughter of Enoch. From this it would appear that the offspring of the great, pious and illustrious Enoch was reserved to be the partner of the just and upright Noah, thereby connecting the best of the family of Cain and Seth together. It was certainly a great age to contract matrimony, but it must be remembered that Noah was then getting on to five hundred years, and as he deferred marriage to this exceeding great age, he looked out for one of his own age. Perhaps Enoch's daughter intended living secluded from men, like her father, until Noah, the best of men then living, applied to her.

Monday, October 8, 2012



CH 3      INDEX      CH 5


  1. And all the days that Enoch lived upon the earth, were three hundred and sixty five years.

  2. And when Enoch had ascended into heaven, all the kings of the earth rose and took Methuselah his son and anointed him, and they caused him to reign over them in the place of his father.

  3. And Methuselah acted uprightly in the sight of God, as his father Enoch had taught him, and he likewise during the whole of his life taught the sons of men wisdom, knowledge and the fear of God, and he did not turn from the good way either to the right or to the left.

  4. But in the latter days of Methuselah, the sons of men turned from the Lord, they corrupted the earth, they robbed and plundered each other, and they rebelled against God and they transgressed, and they corrupted their ways, and would not hearken to the voice of Methuselah, but rebelled against him.

  5. And the Lord was exceedingly wroth against them, and the Lord continued to destroy the seed in those days, so that there was neither sowing nor reaping in the earth.

  6. For when they sowed the ground in order that they might obtain food for their support, behold, thorns and thistles were produced which they did not sow.

  7. And still the sons of men did not turn from their evil ways, and their hands were still extended to do evil in the sight of God, and they provoked the Lord with their evil ways, and the Lord was very wroth, and repented that he had made man.

  8. And he thought to destroy and annihilate them * and he did so.

  9. In those days when Lamech the son of Methuselah was one hundred and sixty years old, Seth the son of Adam died.

10. And all the days that Seth lived, were nine hundred and twelve years, and he died.

11. And Lamech was one hundred and eighty years old when he took Ashmua, the daughter of Elishaa the son of Enoch his uncle, and she conceived.

12. And at that time the sons of men sowed the ground, and a little food was produced, yet the sons of men did not turn from their evil ways, and they trespassed and rebelled against God.

13. And the wife of Lamech conceived and bare him a son at  that time, at the revokition of the year.

14. And Methuselah called his name Noah, saying, the earth was in his days at rest and free from corruption, and Lamech his father called his name * Menachem, saying, this one shall comfort us in our works and miserable toil in the earth, which God had cursed.

15. And the child grew up and was weaned, and he went in the ways of his father Methuselah, perfect and upright with God.

16. And all the sons of men departed from the ways of the Lord in those days as they multiplied upon the face of the eartii with sons and daughters, and they taught one another their evil practices, and they continued sinning against the Lord.

17. And every man made unto himself a god, and they robbed and plundered every man his neighbor as well as his relative, and they corrupted the earth, and the earth was filled with violence.

18. And their judges and rulers went to the daughters of men and took their wives by force from their husbands according to their choice, and the sons of men in those days took from the cattle of the earth, the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air, and taught the mixture of animals of one species with the other, in order therewith to provoke the Lord; and God saw the whole earth and it was corrupt, for all flesh had corrupted its ways upon earth, all men and all animals.

19. And the Lord said, I will blot out man that I created from the face of the earth, yea from man to the birds of the air, together with cattle and beasts that are in the field, for I repent that I made them.

20. And all men who walked in the ways of the Lord, died in those days, before the Lord brought the evil upon man which he had declared, for this was from the Lord, that they should not see the evil which the Lord spoke of concerning the sons of men.

21. And Noah found grace in the sight of the Lord, and the Lord chose him and his children to raise up seed from them upon the face of the whole earth.

   vs. 8:  Referring to what was shortly to take place; the flood.

   vs. 14:  Menachem signifies a comforter. We have no account in scripture of his being called Menachem, although the reason why he might have had that name is given as it is here: "this one will comfort us," (Gen.) which does not so well accord with the name Noah, which means to rest.



CH 2      INDEX      CH 4


  1. And Enoch lived sixty-five years and he begat Methuselah; and Enoch walked with God after having begot Methuselah, and he served the Lord, and despised the evil ways of men.

  2. And the soul of Enoch was wrapped up in the instruction of the Lord, in knowledge and in understanding; and he wisely retired from the sons of men, and secreted himself from them for many days.

  3. And it was at the expiration of many years, whilst he was serving the Lord, and praying before him in his house, that an angel of the Lord called to him from Heaven, and he said, here am I.

  4. And he said, rise, go forth from thy house and from the place where thou dost hide thyself, and appear to the sons of men, in order that thou mayst teach them the way in which they should go, and the work which they must accomplish to enter in the ways of God.

  5. And Enoch rose up according to the word of the Lord, and went forth from his house, from his place and from the chamber in which he was concealed; and he went to the sons of men and taught them the ways of the Lord, and at that time assembled the sons of men and acquainted them with the instruction of the Lord.

  6. And he ordered it to be proclaimed in all places where the sons of men dwelt, saying, where is the man who wishes to know the ways of the Lord and good works? let him come to Enoch.

  7. And all the sons of men then assembled to him, for all who desired this thing went to Enoch, and Enoch reigned over the sons of men according to the word of the Lord, and they came and bowed to him and they heard his word.

  8. And the spirit of God was upon Enoch, and he taught all his men the wisdom of God and his ways, and the sons of men served the Lord all the days of Enoch, and they came to hear his wisdom.

  9. And all the kings of the sons of men, both first and last, together with their princes and judges, came to Enoch when they heard of his wisdom, and they bowed down to him, and they also required of Enoch to reign over them, to which he consented.

10. And they assembled in all, one hundred and thirty kings and princes, and they made Enoch king over them, and they were all under his power and command.

11. And Enoch taught them wisdom, knowledge, and the ways of the Lord; and he made peace amongst them, and peace was throughout the earth during the life of Enoch.

12. And Enoch reigned over the sons of men two hundred and forty-three years, and he did justice and righteousness with all his people, and he led them in the ways of the Lord.

13. And these are the generations of Enoch; Methuselah, Elisha, and Elimelech, three sons; and their sisters were Melca and Nahmah, and Methuselah lived eighty-seven years and he begat Lamech.

14. And it was in the fifty-sixth year of the life of Lamech when Adam died; nine hundred and thirty years old was he at his death, and his two sons, with Enoch and Methuselah his son, buried him with great pomp, as at the burial of kings, in the cave which God had told him.

15. And in that place all the sons of men made a great mourning and weeping on account of Adam; it has therefore become a custom among the sons of men to this day.

16. And Adam died because he ate of the tree of knowledge; he and his children after him, as the Lord God had spoken.

17. And it was in the year of Adam's death which was the two hundred and forty-third year of the reign of Enoch, in that time Enoch resolved to separate himself from the sons of men and to secrete himself as at first in order to serve the Lord.

18. And Enoch did so, but did not entirely secrete himself from them, but kept away from the sons of men three days and then went to them for one day.

19. And during the three days that he was in his chamber, he prayed to, and praised the Lord his God, and the day on which he went and appeared to his subjects he taught them the ways of the Lord, and all they asked him about the Lord he told them.

20. And he did in this manner for many years, and he afterward concealed himself for six days, and appeared to his people one day in seven; and after that once in a month, and then once in a year, until all the kings, princes and sons of men sought for him, and desired again to see the face of Enoch, and to hear his word; but they could not, as all the sons of men were greatly afraid of Enoch, and they feared to approach him on account of the Godlike awe that was seated upon his countenance; therefore no man could look at him, fearing he might be punished and die.

21. And all the kings and princes resolved to assemble the sons of men, and to come to Enoch, thinking that they might all speak to him at the time when he should come forth amongst them, and they did so.

22. And the day came when Enoch went forth and they all assembled and came to him, and Enoch spoke to them the words of the Lord and he taught them wisdom and knowledge, and they bowed down before him and they said, may the king live, may the king live!

23. And in some time after, when the kings and princes and the sons of men were speaking to Enoch, and Enoch was teaching them the ways of God, behold an angel of the Lord then called unto Enoch from heaven, and wished to bring him up to heaven to make him reign there over the sons of God, as he had reigned over the sons of men upon earth.

24. When at that time Enoch heard this he went and assembled all the inhabitants of the earth, and taught them wisdom and knowledge and gave them divine instructions, and he said to them, I have been required to ascend into heaven, I therefore do not know the day of my going.

25. And now therefore I will teach you wisdom and knowledge and will give you instruction before I leave you, how to act upon earth whereby you may live; and he did so.

26. And he taught them wisdom and knowledge, and gave them instruction, and he reproved them, and he placed before them statutes and judgments to do upon earth, and he made peace amongst them, and he taught them everlasting life, and dwelt with them some time teaching them all these things.

27. And at that time the sons of men were with Enoch, and Enoch was speaking to them, and they lifted up their eyes and the likeness of a great horse descending from heaven, and the horse paced in the air;

28. And they told Enoch what they had seen, and Enoch said to them, on my account does this horse descend upon earth; the time is come when I must go from you and I shall no more be seen by you.

29. And the horse descended at that lime and stood before Enoch, and all the sons of men that were with Enoch saw him.

30. And Enoch then again ordered a voice to be proclaimed, saying, where is the man who delighteth to know the ways of the Lord his God, let him come this day to Enoch before he is taken from us.

31. And all the sons of men assembled and came to Enoch that day; and all the kings of the earth with their princes and counsellors remained with him that day; and Enoch then taught the sons of men wisdom and knowledge, and gave them divine instruction; and he bade them serve the Lord and walk in his ways all the days of their lives, and he continued to make peace amongst them.

32. And it was after this that he rose up and rode upon the horse; and he went forth and all the sons of men went after him, about eight hundred thousand men ; and they went with him one day's journey.

33. And the second day he said to them, return home to your tents, why will you go ? perhaps you may die; and some of them went from him, and those that remained went with him six day's journey; and Enoch said to them every day, return to your tents, lest you may die; but they were not willing to return, and they went with him.

34. And on the sixth day some of the men remained and clung to him, and they said to him, we will go witli thee to the place where thou goest; as the Lord liveth, death only shall separate us.

35. And they urged so much to go with him, that he ceased speaking to them; and they went after him and would not return;

36. And when the kings returned they caused a census to be taken, in order to know the number of remaining men that went vvitli Enoch ; and it was upon the seventh day that Enoch ascended into heaven in a whirlwind, witli horses and chariots of fire.

37. And on the eighth day all the kings that had been with Enoch sent to bring back the number of men that were with Enoch, in that place from which he ascended into heaven.

38. And all those kings went to the place and they found the earth there filled with snow, and upon the snow were large stones of snow, and one said to the other, come, let us break through this snow and see, perhaps the men that remained with Enoch are dead, and are now under the stones of snow, and they searched but could not find him, for he had ascended into heaven.



CH 1      INDEX      CH 3


  1. And it was in the hundred and thirtieth year of the life of Adam upon the earth, that he again knew Eve his wife, and she conceived and bare a son in his likeness and in his image, and she called his name Seth, saying, because God has appointed me another seed in the place of Abel, for Cain has slain him. 

  2. And Seth lived one hundred and five years, and he begat a son; and Seth called the name of his son Enosh, saying, because in that time the sons of men began to multiply, and to afflict their souls and hearts by transgressing and rebelling against God. 

  3. And it was in the days of Enosh that the sons of men continued to rebel and transgress against God, to increase the anger of the Lord against the sons of men. 

  4. And the sons of men went and they served other Gods, and they forgot the Lord who had created them in the earth: and in those days the sons of men made images of brass and iron, wood and stone, and they bowed down and served them. 

  5. And every man made his God and they bowed down to them, and the sons of men forsook the Lord all the days of Enosh and his children; and the anger of the Lord was kindled on account of their works and abominations which they did in the earth. 

  6. And the Lord caused the waters of the river Gihon to overwhelm them, and he destroyed and consumed them, and he destroyed the third part of the earth; and notwithstanding this, the sons of men did not turn from their evil ways, and their hands were yet extended to do evil in the sight of the Lord. 

  7. And in those days there was neither sowing nor reaping in the earth; and there was no food for the sons of men and the famine was very great in those days. 

  8. And the seed which they sowed in those days in the ground became thorns, thistles and briers; for from the days of Adam was this declaration concerning the earth, of the curse of God, which he cursed the earth, on account of the sin which Adam sinned before the Lord.

  9. And it was when men continued to rebel and transgress against God, and to corrupt their ways, that the earth also became corrupt.

10. And Enosh lived ninety years and he begat Cainan ;

11. And Cainan grew up and he was forty years old, and he became wise and had knowledge and skill in all wisdom, and he reigned over all the sons of men, and he led the sons of men to wisdom and knowledge; for Cainan was a very wise man and had understanding in all wisdom, and with his wisdom he ruled over spirits and demons.

12. And Cainan knew by his wisdom that God would destroy the sons of men for having sinned upou earth, and that the Lord would in the latter days bring upon them the waters of the flood.

13. And in those days Cainan wrote upon tablets of stone, what was to take place in time to come, and he put tliem in his treasures.

14. And Cainan reigned over the whole earth, and he turned some of the sons of men to the service of God.

15. And when Cainan was seventy years old, he begat three sons and two daughters.

16. And these are the names of the children of Cainan; the name of the first born Mahlallel, the second Enan, and the third Mered, and their sisters were Adah and Zillah; these are the five children of Cainan that were born to him.

17. And Lamech, the son of Methusael, became related to Cainan by marriage, and he took his two daugh- ters for his wives, and Adah conceived and bare a son to Lamech, and she called his name Jabal.

18. And she again conceived and bare a son, and culled his name Jubal; and Ziilah, her sis-tor, was bar- ren in those days and had no offspring.

19. For in those days the sons of men began to trespass against God, and to transgress the commandments which he had commanded to Adam, to be fruitful and multiply in the earth.

20. And some of the sons of men caused their wives to drink a draught that would render them barren, in order that they might retain their figures and whereby their beautiful appearance might not fade.

21. And when the sons of men caused some of their wives to drink, Ziilah drank with them.

22. And the child-bearing women appeared abominable in the sight of their husbands, as widows, whilst their husbands lived, for to the bar- ren ones only they were attached.

23. And in the end of days and years, when Ziilah became old, the Lord * opened her womb.

24. And she conceived and bare a son and she called his name Tubal Cain, saying, after I had withered away have I obtained him from the Almighty God.

25. And she conceived again and bare a daughter, and she called her name Naamah, for she said, after I had withered away have I obtained pleasure and delight.

26. And Lamech was old and advanced in years, and his eyes were dim that he could not see, and Tubal Cain, his son, was leading him, and it was one day that Lamech went into the field and Tubal Cain his son was with him, and whilst they were walking in the field, Cain the son of Adam advanced towards them; for Lamech was very old and could not see much, and Tubal Cain his son was very young.

27. And Tubal Cain told his father to draw his bow, and with the arrows he smote Cain, who was yet far off, and he slew him, for he appeared to them to be an animal.

28. And the arrows entered Cain's body although he was distant from them, and he fell to the ground and died.

29. And the Lord requited Cain's evil according to his wickedness, which he had done to his brother Abel, according to the word of the Lord which he had spoken.

30. And it came to pass when Cain had died, that Lamech and Tubal Cain went to see the animal which they had slain, and they saw, and behold Cain their grandfather was fallen dead upon the earth.

31. And Lamech was very much grieved at having done this, and in clapping his hands together he struck his son and caused his death.

32. And the wives of Lamech heard what Lamech had done, and they sought to kill him.

33. And the wives of Lamech hated him from that day, because ho slew Cain and Tubal Cain, and the wives of Lamech separated from him, and would not hearken to him in those days.

34. And Lamech came to his wives, and he pressed them to listen to him about this matter.

35. And he said to his wives Adah and Zillah, hear my voice O wives of Lamech, attend to my words, for now you have imagined and said that I slew a man with my wounds, and a child with my stripes for their having done no violence, but surely know that I am old and greyheaded, and that my eyes are heavy through age, and I did this thing unknowingly.

36. And the wives of Lamech listened to him in this matter, and they returned to him with the advice of their father Adam, but they bore no children to him from that time, knowing that God's anger was increasing in those days against the sons of men, to destroy them with the waters of the flood for their evil doings.

37. And Mahlallel the son of Cainan lived sixty five years and he begat Jered; and Jered lived sixty -two years and he begat Enoch. 

   vs. 23:  It cannot be supposed that they gave Zillah the drink to cause barrenness when she became old, for as it is expressed in verse twenty, it was given to those to retain their figures and whereby theix beautiful appearance might not fade.



INDEX      CH 2

םפר הישר






  1. And God said let us make man in our image, after our likeness, and God created man in his own image.

  2. And God formed man from the ground, and he blew into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul endowed with speech.

  3. And the Lord said it is not good for man to be alone; I will make unto him a helpmate.

  4. And the Lord caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept, and he took away one of his ribs, and he built flesh upon it and formed it and brought it to Adam, and Adam awoke from his sleep, and behold a woman was standing before him.

  5. And he said, this is a bone of my bones and it shall be called woman, for this has been taken from man; and Adam called her name Eve, for she was the mother of all living.

  6. And God blessed them and called their names Adam and Eve in the day that he created them, and the Lord God said, be fruitful and multiply and fill the earth.

  7. And the Lord God took Adam and his wife, and he placed them in the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it; and he commanded them and said unto them, from every tree of the garden you may eat, but from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil you shall not eat, for in the day that you eat thereof you shall surely die.

  8. And when God had blessed and commanded them he went from them, and Adam and his wife dwelt in the garden according to the com- mand which the Lord had commanded them.

  9. And the serpent, which God had created with them in the earth, came to them to incite them to transgress the command of God which he had commanded them.

10. And the serpent enticed and persuaded the woman to eat from the tree of knowledge, and the woman hearkened to the voice of the serpent, and she transgressed the word of God, and took from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil and she ate, and she took from it and gave also to her husband and he ate.

11. And Adam and his wife transgressed the command of God which he commanded them, and God knew it, and his anger was kindled against them and he cursed them,

12. And the Lord God drove them that day from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from which they were taken, and they went and dwelt at the east of the garden of Eden; and Adam knew his wife Eve and she bore two sons and three daughters.

13. And she called the name of the first born Cain, saying, I have obtained a man from the Lord, and the name of the other slie called Abel, for she said, in vanity we came into the earth and in vanity we shall be taken from it.

14. And the boys grew up and their father gave them a possession in the land; and Cain was a tiller of the ground, and Abel a keeper of sheep.

15. And it was at the expiration of a few years, that they brought an approximating offering to the Lord, and Cain brought from the fruit of the grotmd, and Abel brought from the firstlings of his flock from the fat thereof, and God turned and inclined to Abel and his offering, and a fire came down from the Lord from heaven and consumed it.

16. And unto Cain and his offering the Lord did not turn, and he did not incline to it, for he had brought from the inferior fruit of the ground before the Lord, and Cain was jealous against his brother Abel on account of this, and he sought a pretext to slay him.

17. And in some time after, Cain and Abel his brother went one day into the field to do their work ; and they were both in the field, Cain tilling and ploughing his ground, and Abel feeding his flock ; and the flock passed that part which Cain had ploughed in the ground, and it sorely grieved Cain on this account.

18. And Cain approached his brother Abel in anger, and he said unto him, what is there between me and thee that thou comest to dwell and bring tJiy flock to feed in my land ?

19. And Abel answered his brother Cain and said unto him, what is there between me and thee, that thou shah eat the flesh of my flock and clothe thyself with their wool ?

20. And now therefore, put off the wool of my sheep with which thou hast clothed thyself, and recompense me for their fruit and flesh which thou hast eaten, and when thou shalt have done this, I will then go from thy land as thou hast said?

21. And Cain said to his brother Abel, surely if I slay thee this day, who will require thy blood from me?

22. And Abel answered Cain, saying, surely God who has made us in the earth, he will avenge my cause, and he will require my blood from thee shouldst thou slay me, for the Lord is the judge and arbiter, and it is he who will requite man according to his evil, and the wicked man according to the wickedness that he may do upon earth.

23. And now, if thou shouldst slay me here, surely God knoweth thy secret views, and will judge thee for the evil which thou didst declare to do unto me this day.

24. And when Cain heard the words which Abel his brother had spoken, beheld the anger of Cain was kindled against his brother Abel for declaring this thing. 

25. And Cain hastened and rose up, and took the iron part of his ploughing instrument, with which he suddenly smote his brother and he slew him, and Cain spilt the blood of his brother Abel upon the earth, and the blood of Abel streamed upon the earth before the flock.

26. And after this Cain repented having slain his brother, and he was sadly grieved, and he wept over him and it vexed him exceedingly.

27. And Cain rose up and dug a hole in the field, wherein he put his brother's body, and he turned the dust over it.

28. And the Lord knew what Cain had done to his brother, and the Lord appeared to Cain and said unto him, where is Abel thy brother that was with thee ?

29. And Cain dissembled, and said, I do not know, am I my brother's keeper ? And the Lord said unto him, what hast thou done? The voice of thy brother's blood crieth unto me from the ground where thou hast slain him.

30. For thou hast slain thy brother and hast dissembled before me, and didst imagine in thy heart that I saw thee not, nor knew all thy actions.

31. But thou didst this thing and didst slay thy brother for naught and because he spoke rightly to thee and now, therefore, cursed be thou from the ground which opened its mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand, and wherein thou didst bury him.

32. And it shall be when thou shalt till it, it sliall no mare give thee its strength as in the beginning, for thorns and thistles shall the ground produce, and thou sbalt be moving and wandering in the earth * until the day of thy death.

33. And at that time Cain went out from the presence of the Lord from the place where he was, and he went moving and * wandering in the land towards the east of Eden, he and all belonging to him.

34. And Cain knew his wife in those days, and she conceived and bare a son, and he called his name Enoch, saying, in that time the Lord began to give him rest and quiet in the earth.

35. And at that time Cain also began to build a city: and he built the city and he called the name of the city Enoch, according to the name of his son; for in those days the Lord had given him rest upon the earth, and he did not move about and wander as in the beginning.

36. And Irad was born to Enoch, and Irad begat Mechuyael and Mechuyael begat MethusaeL 


   vs. 32:  Although we find in the 34th and 35th verses that God gave him rest, it might only have been a temporary rest; and as we are neither told in scripture nor in this book anything more relating to Cain, we cannot infer anything contrary to this declaration.

   vs. 33:  There is no mention made of the land of Nod; the word here used is גוד the participle present of the verb נורד to wander; the last letter of those verbs whose two final letters are similar, is sometimes dropped, and it might have been גוד with one daleth, like the word used in scripture נד without the vau, which is frequently omitted.